Among berry shrubs, sea buckthorn occupies a special place due to the rich vitamin composition of the fruits and their unusual taste. Ripened berries have a pleasant "pineapple" aroma, which is why sea buckthorn is sometimes called Siberian pineapple. Culture is valued not only as an important raw material for the vitamin industry, but also as an ornamental plant.
Sea buckthorn is one of the oldest plants on the planet. In ancient times, it was already known in Mongolia, China, Rome, Scandinavia. Residents of these territories used berries as a medicine.
The healing properties of the plant were known to the ancient Slavs, they then healed wounds with sea buckthorn oil. Interest in this berry culture revived in the 17th century thanks to the development of Siberia. There, local residents have long been treating cough with a decoction of sea buckthorn berries, and with the help of oil they got rid of pains from burns.
In the XIX century in Russia, culture was mainly used for decorative purposes. For example, in those days, buckthorn bushes adorned the Tauride Garden in St. Petersburg. The Russian fabulist A. Krylov was also engaged in bush cultivation - he even wrote a book in which he gave advice on caring for seedlings.
At the turn of the XIX - XX centuries, sea buckthorn began to appear in many botanical gardens of Russia. Gradually, among gardeners, interest in it as a fruit culture increased, and amateur gardeners in Siberia and the Urals began to grow it. In the XX century, sea buckthorn begins to be cultivated in nurseries near Moscow and St. Petersburg.
I.V. Michurin, engaged in seed reproduction of sea buckthorn, noted the special value of Siberian seeds, from which the most hardy seedlings grew.
Since the beginning of the 40s, when the composition of the fruits was studied, interest in vitamin-rich sea buckthorn has again revived. The creation of new varieties with improved characteristics began to engage in many scientific institutes. Already in 1960, a group of scientists led by M.A.
- Gift of Katun;
- Altai News;
- Golden cob.
Many new Altai varieties are almost non-bearing, have large fruits with a high content of vitamins, sugar and oil.
Types of Sea Buckthorn
Sea buckthorn is a genus of plants of the Sucker family. It grows in the form of shrubs or trees, mostly prickly. Scientists distinguish 3 types of sea buckthorn:
The loosestrife species of sea buckthorn grows in the Himalayas, China, in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal. Tall trees with branches hanging like willows in Russia are extremely rare. The fruits of this sea buckthorn are yellow, about 6 mm in diameter.
Buckthorn buckthorn grows in Europe, Asia, the North Caucasus, and Crimea. It is a shrub with a height of 1 to 3 m. It is widely cultivated as a fruit crop, and is also used as an element of garden design to create hedges. Distinctive features are small silver-green leaves and rounded yellow or orange fruits.
Tibetan sea buckthorn in Russia was first discovered in the 19th century from the works of N.M. Przhevalsky traveling through Central Asia. This species grows in the highlands of India, Nepal, on the southern slopes of the Himalayas and in the mountainous regions of China. The height of the bush with a winding trunk and numerous spiny branches does not exceed 80 cm. But the berries are very large in comparison with other species - 11 mm in length and 9 mm in diameter.
Varieties of sea buckthorn: an overview
Over the past few decades, new promising varieties have been created that differ from their parental forms in an improved set of qualities. For comparison:
- Wild buckthorn berry weighs no more than 0.3 g, cultural form - on average 0.5 g.
- If the old varieties gave no more than 5 kg of berries from the bush, then for new and 20 kg is not the limit.
Table: Comparative characteristics of varieties
|Distinctive qualities||Grade name||Additional Grade Benefits|
(berry weight from 0.7 to 1.5 g)
|Productivity||Favorite - High Vitamin E|
|High frost resistance||-|
(almost without thorns)
|Girlfriend - High Carotene|
|High oil content||-|
Sea buckthorn is a culture with a unique biochemical composition; its ripe fruits contain a whole complex of vitamins. Separately, it is worth noting the varieties with the greatest number:
- Vitamin C - Red Torch, Atsula, Ayaganga;
- Vitamin E - Amber.
Gallery: the best varieties of sea buckthorn
- Large-fruited sea-buckthorn of the Elizabeth variety is characterized by persistent immunity to pathogens
- Sea buckthorn jam can tolerate even 40-degree frosts
- The sea-buckthorn Giant has almost no thorns on the shoots, which greatly facilitates the collection of berries
- A New Variety of Sea Buckthorn Red Torch Contains Increased Carotenoids and Vitamin C
Cultivated varieties have large fruits and long stalks, which greatly facilitates harvesting.
Video: sea buckthorn Chui
How to plant sea buckthorn in the garden
Sea buckthorn bushes can bear fruit for 20 years. The correct choice of soil composition and place under the berry largely determines the longevity and productivity of the crop.
If you decide to plant sea buckthorn in the garden, try to observe the following conditions:
- Sea buckthorn prefers to grow in well-lit areas. Under the closed canopy of trees, the bushes die off early, weakly bear fruit.
- Plantings should be protected from strong winds, especially in winter. Therefore, from the north side, windbreaks should be created from tall bushes, for example, snowdrops, by placing them in the distance (the roots of sea buckthorn strongly grow to the sides). Or set aside for planting corners in the southern part of the garden, closed from the cold winds by a fence, hedge, garden buildings. In such a place, more favorable microclimatic conditions are created, snow does not blow off in winter, and by spring enough moisture accumulates in the soil. With reliable protection from dry winds, productivity increases by 2 times.
- The culture is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but grows better on loose sandy loam soil with neutral acidity. With strong soil acidification, liming is necessary (500 g lime / m2) Areas with heavy clay soil, especially in wetlands with stagnant water, are completely unsuitable for sea buckthorn. On dense loams, sand is mixed in to create a loose soil structure (1 bucket / m2).
The best planting time is early spring, when the plants are in the green cone phase. During the season, young seedlings will have time to take root well and get stronger for the winter. The survival rate of sea buckthorn during autumn planting is much lower, most of the seedlings die in the winter cold.
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant. Fruits are formed only on female trees, male are only pollinators. In the garden you must have plants of both sexes. For 6 fruiting bushes, 1 pollinator plant is enough. You can place sea buckthorn with a curtain, planting a male bush in the center and surrounding it with a female bush. Or arrange the bushes in rows, planting 1 male plant and 6 female plants in a line.
In male plants, the buds are two to three times larger than in female plants; they have five to seven opaque scales; in women, the kidneys are small, elongated, covered with only two scales.
Sea buckthorn planting
The sea buckthorn plot is being prepared in the fall. Dig the ground, remove weeds. Dig holes with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of 40 cm. Add to the fertile soil layer:
- 10 kg of humus;
- 150 g of superphosphate;
- 40 g of potassium salt.
The step-by-step process of planting sea buckthorn:
- A drainage layer 10 cm thick (crushed stone, broken brick) is laid at the bottom of the pit.
- A mound of fertile land is poured from above.
- Set the peg.
- Spread the roots of the seedling and lower it into the pit. It is necessary to put the plant strictly vertically, otherwise in the future the crown may become crooked, numerous tops will appear.
- Fall asleep a plant, deepening the root neck by 7 cm.
- Tie a sapling to a holding support.
- Around the bush form a watering hole and bring 3 buckets of water into it.
- Mulch the soil with a layer of compost (about 8 cm).
It is not difficult to grow sea buckthorn, the main thing is to create comfortable conditions for it.
In the first year after planting, the young growth does not need additional nutrition, but starting from the next spring, feeding is carried out several times a season:
- In spring, shrubs should be fed with nitrogen fertilizer for intensive growth of vegetative mass. The urea solution (20 g / 10 l) is applied under the bush.
- After flowering and after 10 days, foliar top dressing with Effekton (15 g / 10 l) is performed.
- Fruiting plants are sprayed with a urea solution (15 g / 10 l) during the blooming period.
- During flowering, a solution of potassium humate (15 g / 10 l) is applied along the leaf.
- After harvesting to restore strength, the plant is fed with superphosphate (150 g / m2) and potassium (50 g).
- Organic fertilizer is added every 3 years in the fall, planting it in the soil (10 kg / m2).
Sea buckthorn especially needs phosphorus, which ensures the vital activity of nodule bacteria that live on the roots.
Watering and loosening
Sea buckthorn is not afraid of drought, but in extreme heat it needs watering. Moisture is especially needed for young seedlings - they are watered at first every day, spending 4 buckets of water on a bush. The soil should be moistened to a depth of 60 cm. For fruiting bushes, 4 watering per season is sufficient (6 buckets per plant):
- before and after flowering;
- during the formation of fruits;
- before the onset of cold weather (in late September - early October).
Pre-winter watering is very important: if not enough water was accumulated in the autumn period, the plant's cold tolerance is greatly reduced.
After watering or rain, the soil must be loosened. Since the roots of the shrub are superficial, loosening the soil under the bush is carried out shallow (7 cm), between rows - 10 cm. If the roots are exposed, they should be mulched with a mixture of peat and sand.
Video: how to care for sea buckthorn
Prevention and treatment of lesions
New varieties of sea buckthorn have good immunity, however, under adverse conditions on plants, signs of infection by pests or diseases may appear.
Table: signs of sea buckthorn bush diseases, prevention and control measures
|Disease||How do they manifest||Prevention||Measures|
|Verticillus wilting||Cut the affected branches, as the disease is incurable.|
|Septoria||Infection occurs in warm, humid weather. The bushes at the stage of fruit ripening are most affected, the disease manifests itself as follows:|
|Endomycosis||Before budding, sprinkle with 2% Nitrafen solution.|
Photo gallery: sea buckthorn diseases
- When infected with septoria, the foliage on the sea buckthorn dries up, the shoots turn brown
- Verticillus wilting may occur on sea buckthorn bushes in the second half of summer
- With endomycosis, the pulp of the fruit softens and flows out of the shell
Table: which insects harm sea buckthorn
|Pests||Infection characteristics||Preventive measures||How to help|
|Sea buckthorn fly||Very dangerous pest that destroys up to 90% of the crop. A fly pierces the skin of a green fruit and lays an egg. The larva feeds on the pulp of berries.|
|Green sea buckthorn aphid||Aphid colonies suck juice from young foliage. Damaged leaves curl, turn yellow and fall.||Destroy fallen leaves on which aphids settle.|
|Sea buckthorn moth||The pest lays eggs on the sea buckthorn bark. In the spring, caterpillars penetrate the kidneys. With a massive lesion, the plants dry out.||To clean the fallen leaves, to loosen the soil where moth eggs winter.||At the beginning of the dissolution of the kidneys, spray with a solution of Metaphos (3%), Entobacterin (1%).|
Photo gallery: sea buckthorn pests
- Sea buckthorn fly worm larvae can destroy almost the entire crop on the plantation
- Green aphid larvae hatch in mid-May and suck juice from young leaves
- Sea buckthorn moth lays eggs on the bark of the lower part of the sea buckthorn trunks, fallen leaves and soil
- When affected by pests, the leaves curl and dry, the plant weakens greatly
- Fruits affected by a sea buckthorn fly deteriorate and dry out
Sea buckthorn vaccination
It is easiest to plant buckthorn with cuttings. Do this as follows:
- 5-10 young shoots are selected on the plant, from which cuttings are cut. The scion length should be 10 cm.
- In the phase of swelling of the buds, the vaccine is made into a large branch located on the sunny side.
- All sections should be made with a sharp knife and always covered with garden var.
- The place of vaccination is tied with a film.
Kidney vaccination is best done on the root neck itself from the convex side. There, the bark is more elastic and fusion is faster.
Video: pollinator vaccination on a female sea buckthorn plant
Sea buckthorn is a winter-hardy culture that can tolerate even severe frosts, so it does not need to be insulated. However, it has fragile wood, which, under the weight of large drifts of snow, easily breaks. In strong snowstorms, lumps of snow from the branches should be shaken off.
In spring frost, sea buckthorn is not damaged. Warm, damp weather in winter is more dangerous for it, when the soil does not freeze and as a result, the bark of the trunks at the root collar often erupts. Little snowy winters or sharp temperature drops from + 4 to -30 degrees also negatively affect the plant: branches are damaged and dry out, and productivity is reduced. In order to mitigate the negative impact of a sharp change in temperature, in mid-November watering is carried out on frozen ground, and then a layer of mulch from peat or humus is laid.
After planting, pinch the top of the seedling to obtain a branchy bush with a height of about 20 cm in the future. Sea buckthorn grows very quickly, a whole curtain soon forms from a small bush. With age, many branches dry out, making it difficult to harvest. Fruiting moves to the periphery of the crown. Adult buckthorn bushes are pruned as follows:
- To form a crown in early spring, unnecessary, improperly growing branches are removed, root offsets are cut off at the base.
- Bushes older than 7 years need anti-aging pruning. Old branches are removed, replacing them with 3 year old side shoots.
- In the fall, sanitary pruning is carried out, saving plants from dry, broken and damaged branches of the disease.
Video: spring buckthorn pruning
Sea buckthorn is propagated vegetatively and by seeds.
Propagation of sea buckthorn seeds
Sowing seeds is carried out at the end of November without preliminary stratification into moist soil to a depth of 2 cm with an interval of 5 cm. If sowing is carried out in spring, then before this the seeds must be subjected to cold hardening.
Stages of growing sea buckthorn seedlings:
- Planting material is wrapped in cloth or gauze and placed in wet sand for 12 days at a temperature of + 10 ° C.
- Stubborn seeds are placed in snow or a cellar with a temperature of 1-2 ° C until sowing.
- Thickened seedlings must be thinned out.
- A year later, seedlings grown in the garden are planted in the garden.
When growing sea buckthorn from seeds, a large yield of male specimens is obtained - over 50%. Determining the sex of a plant is possible only at the age of 4 years, in addition, the quality of the variety is lost during seed propagation.
To maintain varietal characteristics, sea buckthorn is propagated vegetatively. For this purpose, use:
- lignified shoots;
- green cuttings;
- root shoot.
Experienced gardeners prefer to propagate sea buckthorn by cuttings, in this case, the survival rate is 98%. Lumber cuttings are harvested in late autumn or early spring, cutting them from annual branches. Seedlings are grown as follows:
- The shoots are divided into parts of 15 cm.
- Before planting, cuttings are lowered for several hours in a 0.02% growth stimulant solution, then planted on a bed in loose soil, watered and covered with a film.
- Carry out regular watering and air the greenhouse.
- After rooting, the film is removed, the entire season is monitored for soil moisture, weeds are removed.
- Next spring, young plants can be planted in open ground.
The best time for green cuttings is the end of June. The process of growing seedlings is largely similar to the previous method, but there are some differences:
- The tops of young shoots are cut from the sea buckthorn bush with a sharp knife, the lower leaves are removed on them. Smooth cutting surfaces contribute to better and faster rooting.
- Green cuttings 15 cm long are planted in pots or in a greenhouse. Water and cover with a film.
- Within a month, moisten the soil, conduct airing.
- Rooted green cuttings are planted at the beginning of next season in the garden.
It is easy to propagate the shrub with the help of layering. The top of the shoot is dug up near the bush, watered and pinned. After a month, a sprout 45 cm long with the formed roots is separated from the bush and planted separately.
One of the easiest ways to propagate sea buckthorn is by using a shoot. During the season, root offspring are sprinkled several times with moist soil to stimulate the formation of new roots. A year later, in spring, the land is raked and cut off from the root shoot.
Compatibility with other plants
The culture does not tolerate close proximity to other plants. The reason for this is the branched root system, which diverges to the sides by several meters. The roots of sea buckthorn are located superficially, at a depth of 30 cm, and can easily be damaged when digging the ground in the garden. Even a slight injury to them can greatly weaken the plant. Therefore, for sea buckthorn, the edge of the site, the territory along the fence or buildings, is usually distinguished. You should not plant raspberry bushes, stone fruits, strawberries, asters, gladiolus trees nearby due to common fungal diseases that cause the plants to dry out.
Sea buckthorn is not so common in our gardens. Many people think that it gives a lot of overgrowth, its berries are sour, and because of the thorns it is difficult to harvest. However, all this does not apply to new varieties - ashipless, with improved taste. Culture has many advantages: unpretentiousness in leaving, frost resistance, ability to resist diseases and wreckers. Vitamin preparations can be made from sea buckthorn fruits and used as a medicinal raw material. Also, the plant can be used in landscaping. Bushes planted at a distance of 60 cm from each other, after 3 years turn into an unusual fruiting hedge.