Currant is one of the most beloved cultures of gardeners; it can be found on almost any household plot in all latitudes of our country. And it is not only the taste of the berries and the benefits of this plant. Currants are unpretentious in care and at the same time quite fruitful. But sometimes we notice that something is wrong with the leaves, berries and branches, the bush is clearly not feeling well, it is much weaker and even dies over time. It turns out that such problems are not uncommon, and they need to be solved very quickly.
If you decide to grow black and red currants on the site, and planted several bushes, you need to be ready to care for the plant in the spring, before the buds have begun to bloom. But the main signs of infection can be seen only when full leaves appear. It is necessary to observe both the old branches and the new shoots. Gardeners should be alert for the following visible damage:
- brown spots with a diameter of 2-3 mm on leaves or berries that turn white over time;
- yellowing of leaves long before the onset of autumn;
- the appearance of convex red spots on a leaf plate;
- white or brown coating on leaves and fruits;
- drying of the bush;
- premature leaf fall.
Each of these signs indicates a specific disease that you can diagnose. Keep in mind that some diseases are characteristic only for blackcurrant, others affect mainly red and white.
Anthracnose belongs to fungal diseases; its causative agent is Colletotrichum orbiculare. It is usually detected in the summer, most often in July, and the initial signs of infection are:
- the formation of brown and red spots on the leaves up to 1 mm in size in the form of tubercles;
- an increase in these spots up to the defeat of the entire leaf;
- drying and falling of the affected leaves.
The disease can affect any kind of currant, but is especially characteristic of red. Of particular danger is in rainy periods, when the fungus becomes more active. The causative agent is almost immune to low temperatures, so it easily survives the winter period on the remains of leaves and branches.
The culprit of the defeat is Erysiphales marsupial. The disease is considered rare, manifests itself closer to mid-summer and destroys all parts of the weakened plant - leaves, new shoots, ovaries and even ripening berries. Symptoms of defeat:
- white shoots appear on new shoots and leaf blades;
- after a while, the plaque turns brown, compacts, becoming felt to the touch;
- the affected shoots are deformed, dry and die;
- plaque spreads on berries that crumble without ripening.
The disease often manifests itself from the beginning of spring until the fall. There are 2 types of rust affecting currants.
- Ball rust is characterized by the manifestation of large yellow or orange pads - capsules with spores on leaf blades. Falls on garden plants from sedge with the help of wind.
- Small yellow dots on the upper side of the leaf plate indicate columnar rust. From the inside of the leaf in these areas are yellow-red growths containing spores of the fungus. Over time, they become like hairs. At the end of the season, the sheet below is covered with dense felt. The disease falls on garden crops from nearby conifers.
Reverse (terry blackcurrant)
The disease causes the virus, transfers it to the bush of a kidney tick. The virus causes mutations in the primary form and infertility of the plant.
The defeat is detected by the following signs:
- leaves change shape, lengthen, acquire sharp teeth and lose symmetry;
- sheet plates become three-bladed (the usual form has 5 blades);
- the color of green becomes lilac-violet;
- the number of veins per leaf decreases;
- the flowers lengthen, their petals become thin;
- the bush loses its characteristic aroma and ceases to bear fruit.
The disease usually manifests itself with a flowering culture.
Nectric shoot drying
The defeat occurs due to the action of the marsupial fungus Nectria ribis. It causes drying and subsequent dying of branches. It is characteristic only for white and red currants. Symptoms of infection are as follows:
- young shoots and old branches are covered with red dots, which increase quite quickly and become bulky brown tubercles;
- later formations turn black (this indicates the maturation of spores);
- new shoots are bent and perish.
The disease affects mainly blackcurrant. You can find its symptoms in early summer: yellow-orange patterns appear around the veins on the leaves.
Curl leaf curl
Most often, the cause of plant disease is the defeat of a Tafrin fungus or a virus. But in currants of all types, the causative agent of curly is mainly aphids.
The disease can be detected by the following signs:
- the leaf plate grows unevenly, thickens in places;
- the leaves take on a convex-concave or wavy shape, vesicular swellings form on them;
- over time, the leaves begin to turn red, can dry and fall prematurely.
White leaf spot (septoria)
The disease is more characteristic of blackcurrant, but can affect red and white. Distributed in the summer.
Symptoms of defeat:
- the leaves are covered with small rounded and angular formations of 2-3 mm in brown;
- after a while, the spots turn white, a brown border appears (the period of maturation of fungal spores begins);
- spots begin to appear on the berries;
- affected leaf plates fall off.
Ways to deal with common diseases of currant
If you notice any of the described symptoms, immediately take up the treatment of the bushes. Some diseases may not cause significant harm to the plant, but there are those that will destroy all the currants on the site, and easily spread to other fruit and berry crops.
Table: currant diseases, ways to combat them
|Reverse (Terry)||Since the disease is viral, the affected plants cannot be treated. Sick bushes must be completely uprooted and burned.|
|Nectric shoot drying||Carefully inspect the bush, cut off all affected branches and burn. Grease places of cuts for disinfection with Bordeaux mixture and garden var.|
|Striped mosaic||The affected bush must be uprooted and destroyed. Not subject to treatment.|
Currant pests and methods of controlling them
In addition to diseases, currant bushes can significantly harm various insects. Many of them, by the way, are carriers of viruses and infections - pathogens of serious diseases. Therefore, the control of insect pests is extremely important for every gardener who cares about his plants.
If you saw that the leaves on the bushes of white and red currants are united almost to the veins, be sure: this is the business of the pale-footed sawfly pseudopods. The larvae of this insect reach a length of 1 cm. They survive the winter in the ground at a depth of about 15 cm, wrapped in dense cocoons from the web. In spring, the larvae pupate and turn into butterflies just in time for the leaves to bloom. Adult insects begin reproduction, laying eggs (up to 150 pieces from one individual!) Along the veins on the inside of the leaf. After 10 days, the caterpillars hatch - green larvae with a brown head and 10 pairs of legs. They are taken for eating leaves.
For one season, the pale-legged sawfly gives 2-3 generations.
To avoid the appearance of an insect, dig the soil under the bushes every autumn. This will not destroy the cocoons, but so they will be moved to a greater depth, and in the spring it will be much more difficult for butterflies to come to the surface. In addition, you have to manually shake off larva bushes all spring and summer. Be sure to spread a newspaper or cloth so that the larvae do not get into the soil.
Insecticides, for example, the drug Spark, will help get rid of the sawfly. The first spraying should be carried out before flowering, the second - after it, the third - after harvesting. So you can destroy all generations of the pest.
Damage to plants is not caused by the leaf butterfly itself, but by its caterpillars. They feed mainly on buds and berries, and not only all types of currants, but also grapes, buckthorn, viburnum. Therefore, do not place these plants in the garden close to each other.
It is difficult to find pupae of this insect: they wait the winter in the cracks of the bark, under the roots, among the dead leaves. Butterflies fly out towards the end of spring and lay eggs on currants, in particular, its young shoots, buds, pedicels.
If you notice a cobweb tangling in their buds on currant buds, it means that caterpillars have already appeared and started to pupate. Each individual damages about 30 buds. Less than 2 months is enough for the second generation of butterflies to appear. They will lay eggs in the formed berries.
To destroy the leafworm, spray the bushes with insecticides according to the instructions. Well-proven drugs such as Chlorofos, Actellik, Gardona, Phosphamide, Antio, Ripcord. The first treatment should be carried out when butterflies fly out, the second - with the mass appearance of caterpillars.
One of the most common pests of currants is a firetum. Its caterpillars eat berries, entangling them with a web. Due to this effect, the fruits ripen prematurely and dry quickly.
You can recognize butterfly fireflies by the color of their wings: the front ones are dark, with brown spots and a transverse strip of brownish color, and the rear ones are light. These insects appear in spring and lay eggs on flowers. Caterpillars are already withdrawn with the advent of ovaries, enveloping them with a web. Each individual can damage up to 15 berries. With the end of summer, the caterpillars hide in the soil, where they pupate and survive the winter.
To get rid of a firetight, regularly check the bushes for spider webs. Everything you find, immediately shoot and destroy. After flowering ends, sprinkle the currant with Karbofos or Actellik. If the currant was hit by a firetruck last year, it would be advisable to process it before flowering.
In late autumn, remove all leaves and dry grass from under the currant plantations, dig over the soil. You can also hobble each bush and mulch the earth with a layer of peat or compost 8 cm high. Do not thicken the plantings, remove the overgrown in a timely manner.
It is recommended to combine the destruction of the fire-arms with the treatment of bushes against anthracnose.
Spreading on the lower surface of currant leaves, the tick covers them with a cobweb and sucks juices from them. This causes yellowing and early death of the leaves.First, the leaf plate is covered with bright dots, then the affected areas become discolored. The defeat of the spider mite leads to a significant decrease in yield and winter hardiness of the crop.
In order to rid currants of spider mites in the early spring, when the buds are just beginning to bloom, treat the bushes with Karbofos, Akartan, colloidal sulfur, Metaphos. If the bush is already severely affected, spray it again shortly before flowering. If yellow twisted leaves are found, carry out an additional treatment.
Please note that it is recommended to alternate the means for processing, since ticks can develop immunity to acaricides.
Be sure to collect and destroy the fallen leaves and dry grass under the bushes, carefully dig the soil. All this will significantly reduce the population of insects. Since this pest is very fond of heat, in hot, dry weather, spray or even water currant bushes on top.
Currant kidney mite
As the name implies, this insect settles in currant buds, which are the staple food of the insect. Affected kidneys become swollen-rounded. You will see them after the leaves fall. The leaves that appear from them in the spring of next year are irregular in shape, pale in color and small in size.
Often, ticks and birds become insects. Even the wind contributes to the spread. In addition to the harm caused, the tick is a carrier of diseases, for example, terry.
To prevent the spread of ticks on the site, carefully consider the currant bushes. All affected kidneys need to be plucked, branches - cut and destroyed.
When white plaque appears on old kidneys (this indicates the exit of ticks outside), treat the bushes with preparations containing sulfur. For greater effectiveness, repeat spraying after 2-3 weeks. Also use Tiodan's solution if you find swollen buds in spring.
Shoot and leaf gall aphid
Perhaps the most common pest of garden plants visible to the naked eye is aphids. Two species of this insect are the main enemies of currants.
- The appearance of gall aphids is indicated by red or yellow swelling on the leaves of currant. After the leaf plate darkens, dries and falls off, as the aphids suck out all the juice from it.
- Shoot aphid feeds on the juice of young branches of currant. From this effect, the shoots are deformed, their growth stops.
Once you find signs of aphid damage, treat the currant bushes with Karbofos or Aktellik according to the instructions on the package. After 7-10 days, spraying should be repeated.
The danger is not the butterfly itself, but its false caterpillars, which can gnaw all the leaves, leaving only the veins. In the fall, they wrap themselves in a spider web cocoon and fall to the ground with foliage.
To protect against the moth and its tracks, you can apply spraying with any insecticide. Perform the first treatment as soon as the buds open, the second - at the end of flowering currants. You should also shake the tracks by hand, after having previously laid a newspaper or cloth under the bush.
You can recognize the butterfly currant glass-box by the scales of black-lilac shade and light transverse stripes on the abdomen. Its wingspan is 2.5 cm. The pest manifests itself at the end of June, 2 weeks after the currant blooms.
The glassmaker eats floral nectar, and then lays eggs in the cracks of the bark. Of these, white caterpillars appear over time, which harm the plant by gnawing branches in the middle. In the formed passages they winter. Such damage leads to drying out of the branches, which can be seen at the end of flowering currants or at the beginning of ripening berries.
To get rid of the glass, spray the currant bushes with any insecticides. This should be done at the end of flowering. Trim damaged and infected branches in a timely manner, leaving no stumps and covering the wounds with garden var. Destroy the fallen leaves, weed the grass in the plantings and loosen the soil. Make sure that the bark of the branches is not damaged.
Several species of gall midges (leaf, shoot and flower) primarily affect blackcurrant bushes. The pest looks like a small (about 3 cm long) brown mosquito.
- Leaf gall midges can be found on young leaflets located at the ends of new shoots. Larvae appear at the beginning of flowering, they immediately begin to eat non-blooming leaf plates, making numerous holes. The leaves from this are deformed, darken and dry. Shoots stop growing.
- The shoot gall midge can be found on bushes located in a shaded, moist place, in thickened plantings. Females of adults lay eggs at the bottom of the shoots, usually in the cracks of the bark. Larvae appear during flowering, they hide deep under the bark, forming colonies. You will recognize the affected areas by the dark sunken spots, which eventually turn into deep and wide cracks. The branches of an infected bush dry out and become brittle.
- Flower gall midget lays eggs during propagation during buds. They will be eaten by larvae that appear during budding. Damaged clusters of future flowers turn yellow or take on a reddish hue, grow very much and soon fall off.
To get rid of any type of this insect, spray blackcurrant bushes with Karbofos, Aktellik or Rovikurt in the spring, until buds form. Also, another such treatment will be required after the crop is harvested.
During the summer and autumn, inspect the bushes and cut to the bottom all damaged shoots. In the autumn, dig the soil to the depth of the shovel. When caring for bushes, try not to damage the bark. If this does happen, cover the holes with garden varieties.
Folk remedies against pests and diseases of currant
Many gardeners prefer to use proven folk remedies and methods known for their effectiveness since ancient times.
- Prepare an infusion of ash. Take a bucket, pour 1/3 of ash into it, fill it with water to the top. Boil for an hour, then strain and cool. Prepared infusion spray the affected bushes 3 times per season.
- Mullein infusion is also often used for spraying. You will need a third bucket of mullein, which must be added to the top with warm water. Insist 3 days, then add another 3 buckets of water, strain. In the early stages of infection or for prevention, it is enough to spray the plants 1 time, until the buds open. If the disease is started, do the treatment 3-4 times with an interval of a week, the last time - 5 days before picking berries.
- From powdery mildew, pathogenic bacteria and eggs, pest larvae, spraying of plants with boiling water heated well helps. It is carried out immediately after the snow melts and before the swelling of the kidneys. Fill boiling water with a watering can and evenly pour over each plant. One adult bush will need a full watering can. Repeated processing with boiling water can not be carried out, so for convenience, tie the twine branches so that the bush across is no more than 70 cm.
Varieties of currants resistant to diseases and pests
Progress does not stand still, and in our time, selection offers gardeners new varieties of different crops, practically not affected by harmful effects. The attention of breeders did not bypass currants.
Table: What varieties of currants successfully resist diseases and pests
|Grade name||Short description||Disease, pest, level of resistance|
|Blackcurrant Kipiana||High resistance to powdery mildew and kidney mites, poor resistance to anthracnose.|
|Blackcurrant Binar||Good resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew, relative resistance to the kidney tick.|
|Blackcurrant Katyusha||High resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew.|
|Blackcurrant Klussonovsky||Resistance to powdery mildew is high, to the mite is relative.|
|Blackcurrant Kupalinka||Good resistance to powdery mildew, relative to the kidney tick.|
|Dutch red currant||The variety is resistant to all diseases caused by the fungus.|
|Red Currant Cascade||Immune to fungal diseases.|
|Blackcurrant Temptation||Good resistance to leaf spot and powdery mildew.|
Photo gallery: currant varieties resistant to diseases and pests
- Berries of Katyusha currant have a pleasant sweet and sour taste.
- Dutch red currant unpretentious, but very productive
- Blackcurrant variety Binar high-yielding and winter-hardy
- Currant Temptation is resistant to powdery mildew and leaf spots
- Huge cascade currant brushes will delight you with juicy berries
- Kipiana currant is resistant to powdery mildew and buds
- Klussonovskaya blackcurrant variety - a gift from Belarusian breeders
- The berries of the black currant Kupalinka are very large
Gardeners reviews on the protection of currants from diseases and pests
I defined it as anthrocnosis - maybe it’s wrong. But from the descriptions in any horticultural literature it was most similar to him, the leaves first became tuberous-curly, then they curled, bored, dried up. The Bordeaux mixture helped, but processed several times before flowering, and then, after picking berries, it started again. If this year will be the same - uproot.Moroz
My daughter and I cut off the “cabbageheads” for two years in a row, this year there are already significantly fewer of them, about 5-10 buds per bush. So empirically established - HELP! Anxious drying of branches on my currant is also observed. Honestly, I have never seen such a thing in my entire life! There is a desire to cut branches just in case, they seem to be not residents anyway. Bushes last weekend greatly spilled, let's see what happens next.Moscow summer resident
I raised this question because I have this picture for the second year. Last year, I did not begin to cut branches in the hope that the bush would come to its senses. As a result, it gradually dried out almost the entire, even those branches that stood all green and began to bloom. In the middle of summer, I cut the whole bush almost to the root; by the end of summer, it gave new shoots, just in case I processed them with Inta-Vir closer to the end of summer. This year is the same. It looks like some kind of fungal disease! This year, I cut off drying branches, many new ones grew on one bush and it got stuck, and the other two still stand, drying, turning yellow and it seems that they can no longer help ... I already want to uproot them and plant new ones, but in another place!Katerina. L.
It can be treated with boiling water only in late February - early March, early in the morning in frost. In general, it is better to use pesticides against the kidney tick. Further after flowering, use folk remedies for such a pest as a moth. You can plant a bush of tomato or throw the stepsons of a tomato. After harvesting, a few more times must be etched before winter. Rains wash away the treatment on the plant and it will be damaged by the fire.Marinka
The surest sign of the appearance of a kidney tick on currant bushes is strongly swollen buds. In the spring, such buds do not bloom, but only loosen so that the mutilated rudiments of the leaves are visible inside. Subsequently, the damaged kidneys gradually die off and dry out, which leads to significant crop losses. Each swollen kidney can contain up to several thousand ticks. Another sign of infection of the bushes with a kidney tick is the altered color and shape of the apical leaves, which become darker than normal, glossy, leathery, deformed. Damage is already noticeable in July - August. Every gardener should know how to deal with a kidney tick on currants. Control measures: early spring (before the tick leaves last year’s tick) cutting infected shoots and burning them. Spraying currants during the ejection of flower brushes with a 2-degree ISO or a suspension of colloidal sulfur (75 g per 10 l of water). After flowering, spraying with a 1-degree calcareous broth or 1% aqueous suspension of colloidal sulfur. Spraying with 0.5% ether sulfonate or 0.3-0.4% tedione during the ejection of flower brushes and immediately after flowering also reduces the number of mite-damaged kidneys.YanaM
Whatever misfortune you find on your currant bushes, do not despair. Experience and advice will help you save the plants along with the crop and continue to prevent the recurrence of the problem. Currant is not so capricious, it needs attention and the easiest care.