Fittonia is a grassy perennial from the Acanthus family, native to South America, there are four species. Three of them have creeping, creeping stems, and the fourth is erect. The name comes from the surname of the Englishwoman Fitton, who released the first biology textbook.
The flower grows in swampy areas, shady forests of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, where the climate is warm and humid. Flower shops offer hybrids obtained by selection, adapted to room conditions, the price varies from 100 to 500 rubles.
Fittonia is a round-leaved flower with creeping, thin shoots up to 10 cm long. The leaves are green, olive with scarlet, red, yellow, pink, silver-blue veins resembling cobwebs, connected by a small petiole with a stem. Their unusual color scheme is the main decoration of Fittonia.
Blossoming produces spikelets once in the summer. Yellow small flowers do not attract attention, they are advised to break off. The plant is capricious, can grow in florariums, glass vessels. Photos of the flower look very impressive, they contain it as an ampelous, groundcover culture.
Types of fittonia for indoor cultivation
Vershaffelton Fittonia or white-veined - about 25 cm high with branching stems, creeping shoots, and large leaves.
There are varieties:
- Silver-veined - with a bright silver mesh, a smooth, oval surface of the sheet, up to 20 cm high, 10 cm long.
- Red - with streaks of pink, red, purple flowers.
- Josan - wavy, green leaves with a coral mesh and dark edging on the edges.
- Perseus - a light olive background and a pastel-colored cobweb.
- White Anna - white-skinned, a shade darker with a beautifully fringed strip.
- Skeleton - small matte velvety olive leaves, a dense mesh of burgundy shade.
- King Cross Mosaic is another variety, similar to sea foam or lace, the edging is green, it frames almost the entire white corrugated sheet.
- Pink Wayne - a saturated emerald shade with white and pink veins.
- Fortissimo - small oval leaves with bright fuchsia nets.
- Fittonia Mix - several varieties growing together, a decorative composition with many bright veins, different shades of leaves.
- Minima, dwarf - a species created for a bottle garden, florarium, it has miniature shoots with tiny leaves up to 2 cm. There are also varieties of Tiger, Red Angel.
- Giant, large - the difference is in straight shoots, 60 cm high. Leaves up to 16 cm long, up to 10 cm wide, petioles are short. The shiny plate of the sheet is painted dark green with pink hues. Rarely grown at home.
- Hypoesthes - Fittonia-like flower from the Acanthus family. When comparing, it is not difficult to notice the differences: its leaves are larger, soft to the touch, bright spots on its entire surface, the stem is erect.
Fittonia care at home
Fittonia needs special care.
It is important to regularly drain the water from the pan, make sure that it is not overdried and waterlogged.
Features of care depend on the season:
|Parameter||Spring Summer||Autumn winter|
|Location, lighting.||Bright, expanded, with sun protection, east or west, away from air conditioning.||Additional artificial light for 2-3 hours a day. Do not put too close to the batteries, it is better to choose the southern windows.|
|Temperature||+ 24 ... +27 ° C, do not expose to the street.||Not lower than +18 ° C, avoid sharp drops and drops.|
|Humidity||80-90%, spray 2 times a day with warm filtered water, place a container with wet expanded clay, pebbles, or special moisturizing devices nearby.|
|Watering||3-4 times a week, immediately after drying of the soil.||Water 2 times a week, a day after the drying of the soil.|
|Top dressing||From April to September - once in 14 days to use mineral fertilizers, and on the sheet - liquid.||Fertilizing is needed once a month with minerals.|
Features of landing and transplanting
Due to its rapid growth, the plant needs a spring transplant. The flower must first get used to the new environment for 2-3 days, then it needs to be transplanted.
For planting, it is better to use a shallow wide container with holes and neutral light soil. Experts advise buying ready-made mixtures for violets or geraniums.
You can make a substrate yourself. Composition - two parts of coniferous or sod land, one peat, sphagnum and coarse sand.
Step by Step Actions:
- Lay the drainage layer on 2/3: small expanded clay, brick chips, crushed stone, pieces of foam.
- Top with a special mixture for decorative and deciduous crops.
- Extract the plant, shake off without touching the roots.
- Transfer to a sanitized container. To do this, use a solution of manganese, vinegar essence, or chlorhexidine.
- Top up the remaining substrate.
- Pour, put in a bright warm place, after draining the water from the pan.
Older longer shoots in spring need to be cut or tied to 2/3, so that young ones grow. The plant must be an adult, more than three years old.
Cuttings - with three or five sheets, cut the stalk with a sharp tool, leave the scrap in a glass of water or aquagrunt until the roots are formed. Then put in a mini-greenhouse, with a temperature of + 25 ... +28 ° C, cover with a transparent film, glass, do not forget to open during the day, after rooting - transplant into a separate pot.
In this way, most indoor flowers are propagated - petunia, ficus, geranium, crossander.
Division - divide the bush into parts, each plant in a separate pot, trying not to damage the fragile roots.
For propagation by tap, after breaking off the leaves, sprinkle long stems with moist soil. A few weeks later, with the advent of the roots, they should be separated and planted in prepared pots.
Propagation by seeds is not so popular, it can only be done if there is a very high-quality seed. In spring, it should be sown in pre-treated, moist soil, covered with foil and put in a lit place with a temperature of +25 ° C. After the appearance of the shoots, remove the film, dive after the appearance of 3-5 leaves.
Ways to keep fittonia
There are several ways to grow Fittonia: flower pot, florarium, aquarium.
The capacity suitable for growth is low, up to 7 cm, lay drainage and soil at the bottom. It is necessary to create lighting, watering, humidity. The disadvantage of this method is that you have to constantly monitor the level of humidity and temperature.
For this method, it is preferable to use aqua soil or hydrogel. Instead of a pot - a bottle, an aquarium, a glass. Coconut fiber and expanded clay - for the soil, the plant should not come into contact with the walls.
- No need to monitor humidity.
- It is enough to water once a month.
- You can place other flowers there for contrast. But transplanting and pruning should be done more often.
It requires special capacity, equipment to maintain optimal conditions. Cons: slow growth, the risk of root decay.
Diseases and Pests
With poor care, the flower is prone to pests and diseases.
|The plant stops growing, fades, the roots soften, the flower dies.||Root rot.||To treat with preparations: Discore, Trichodermin, Baikal-M, according to the instructions, transplant.|
|On the plant, green insects, sticky sheets, fade, deform.||Aphid.||Spray with a solution of liquid soap without contacting the ground. A liter of hot water will require 50 gr. laundry soap. Grind it, dissolve in water, cool.|
|White coating on the surface.||Mealybug.||At the beginning, treat with an alcohol-soap solution. Dissolve 20 g of boiling water in a liter. soap, cool, add 10 ml of alcohol. In advanced cases, use drugs: Actara, Phosphamide, Calypse.|
|On the shoots are brown scales, the leaves dry, fall off.||Shield.||Set separately from other colors, use Actellik.|
|Small insects that drink juice, dry sections of the leaf, holes appear instead.||Thrips.||Immediately transplant the plant into new soil, wash the pot with laundry soap, soak in a solution of manganese. Treat the plant with Actellik, Karbofos, Fitoverma.|
|Holes appear in the leaves, light dots, cobwebs are visible from above. Leaves curl, dry.||Spider mite.||Isolate the flower, sanitize the tray, window sill, pot. Drugs will help - Omayt. Actofit, Actellik.|
Mistakes in Fittonia Care
Masters of Fittonia often make mistakes.
|The plant withers, dries, the leaves fall.|
|Twisted leaves, spots on them.||Lack of moisture.||Increase watering.|
|The lower part of the stem is exposed.||The flower is aging.||Spring crop.|
|Leaves dry, brown or yellow.||Too dry air. Few fertilizers.||Spray, put a humidifier. Feed with mineral fertilizer for indoor flowers.|
|The plant stretches, the color turns pale.||Lack of light.||Keep in a more lighted place, or use an artificial lamp.|
|The edges of the flower dry.||Excessive or insufficient feeding.||Adjust the frequency of fertilizer application.|
Fittonia - sleeping pills at home
In the Chinese teaching of Feng Shui, Fittonia is a symbol of the element of metal, helps to achieve the goal and get rid of indecision and depression, removes negativity, improves mood.
The plant benefits: it cleans the air of germs, saturates with moisture, it can be kept in the bedroom for a relaxing holiday. The flower calms, helps relaxation, fast falling asleep.
According to signs Fittonia attracts money. People are convinced of this because of the appearance of leaves resembling coins. The plant does not contain poisonous juice and is safe for home.