Verbena: description of the flower and its species, care

Verbena is a herbaceous plant native to Africa and Australia. The verbena family is widespread and is represented by 200 flower species. It is found under a wide variety of names, and the roots of some of them go to Ancient Greece: iron grass, tears of Juno, veins of Venus and the grass of Hercules. From ancient times, the plant was attributed magical properties: it was part of a love drink, was used to fight the dark forces, and protected the hearth.

Also, verbena has always been famous for its healing qualities and has been actively used in folk medicine.

Botanical characteristics of verbena

The verbena habitat is wide and due to the unpretentiousness of the flower, so it grows remarkably not only in meadows, but also along curbs, on slopes and other infertile soils along with weeds. Domestic medicine, related to traditional, did not begin to include the plant in active use. Perhaps this is due to the fact that verbena is a weed species. However, this did not prevent the herb from being recognized in several countries in Africa, South America and Australia.

Types and varieties of verbena

Despite the fact that the flower is represented by several hundred species, only eight, mainly decorative samples, underwent wide distribution in the middle lane.

Hybrid

It is highly appreciated for its external characteristics.

GradeDescription
AmethystIt grows to 0.3 m in height, the inflorescences are saturated dark in color.
CrystalBranchy plant up to 0.25 m; White flowers with large corollas.
EtnaLarge representative, growing to 0.5 m; red flowers.
CardinalNoteworthy is the density of growing inflorescences with corollas of bright red color.
ImaginationDue to the branching of the stems, this sample is considered ampelous, flowers of a purple hue.
Moon riverThe bush has the shape of a ball, large inflorescences.

Canadian

Perennial is highly valued, as in a certain environment it can bloom until early November. The species is represented by a small bush up to 0.2 m tall with white and pink flowers.

Tough

Perennial species grown in our latitudes as an annual. Flowers are mainly lilac shades. It is noteworthy for the leaf feature, which consists in an elongated shape and a slight pubescence.

Buenos Aires

A tall perennial plant whose stems grow to 1.2 m in height. It branches significantly from above, and from below it is covered with leaves bordered by small teeth along the contour. Blooms in July with small tubular amethyst flowers.

Fragrant (lemon)

Tall perennial, notable for its size - 1.5-2 m. The leaves, when rubbed, begin to smell faintly of citrus and mint. Flowers of a delicate pink color.

Large flowered

The species got its name not by chance, but thanks to the largest sizes of flowers among all the others. In diameter, one sample can reach 10 cm. They cover a wide range of colors, including both dark and light shades.

A peculiar white frame of each bud gives decorativeness. Spherical inflorescences bloom in mid-summer and end only in autumn frosts. Only 2 varieties of this species were widely used.

GradeDescription
TuscanyGrows to 0.25 m, inflorescences are represented mainly by light shades.
IdealThe stems extend to 0.3 m. The color of the flowers varies and covers a wide palette of shades.

This view is most revealed in an open area.

Bonarskaya

On high stems about 1 m in height are dense umbrellas decorated with purple inflorescences. The plant does not require careful care, garter and support, but will delight in abundant flowering until late autumn.

Beautiful

Lush inflorescences are gathered together and resemble a ball in shape, while the flowers are small, but compensate for the size with an extensive color scheme. Petals are cut along the edges. A small shrub grows to 0.3 m in height.

Medicinal

The species is notable for its root, which is able to go deeper into the soil, while the bush does not grow above 0.6 m. The section of the stem has the shape of a tetrahedron. The sheet plate is decorated with large teeth along the edges. The flowers are small, collected in neat inflorescences. At the end of summer, oblong brown seedlings grow.

Verbena Care Terms

Comprehensive care, which includes maintaining a number of factors at a level comfortable for the plant, ensures healthy growth and proper development of verbena.

FactorConditions
LightingGood lighting is required, such as saturated sunlight. The bush is able to grow at normal rates and in partial shade, however, it will be deprived of lush flowering. At home, you can place the pot on the windowsill or balcony, preferably on the south side, but during peak solar activity it is better to shade the plant.
TemperatureIt covers a wide range of temperatures, is capable of withstanding a cold snap of at least 3 ° C. Favorable indicators vary + 16 ... +25 ° С.
HumidityThe plant is hygrophilous, but stagnant water can provoke decay of the root system, especially ampel species are susceptible to this ailment. Arrangement of a drainage system will protect the plant from excessive moisture.
WateringThe amount of watering is completely dependent on temperature conditions. So, in the hot summer period, regular and plentiful hydration is required, in the autumn - much more modest, and at the same time more rare.
FertilizersTo apply to the soil requires both mineral and organic fertilizers. Moreover, the latter are used once and only to maintain the concentration of nitrogen in the soil. Mineral fertilizing should be carried out no more than 4 times in 1 season, otherwise the plant will acquire a large deciduous mass, but will practically lose flowering.

Planting and transplanting verbena

First, you should choose a suitable place for planting verbena in open ground. Almost any site is suitable, but it is preferable to be well-lit by the sun and at the same time possessing fertile soil. It is important to take care of the presence of drainage, which is easy to provide using one's own broken brick, crushed stone or expanded clay.

The transplant should be carried out in late May, since earlier sudden changes in temperature and freezing are possible, which will negatively affect the young plant. It is necessary to dig and level the soil, fertilizing it with humus at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m². After forming the pits, it is necessary to take into account the presence of an earthen coma on the root.

Then the holes should be abundantly watered and a verbena bush should be installed in them. It is important to fill the empty space in the hole with earth and tamp. It is necessary to maintain a distance between the wells of 0.2 m. The newly planted plant needs watering.

Verbena propagation by seeds

Sowing should include the following sequence of actions:

  • Soaking seeds in warm water for several days;
  • Preparation of soil with the addition of sand and peat;
  • Immersion of seeds and soil moisture;
  • Creating a greenhouse effect by covering the container with polyethylene;
  • Storage in a cool place for 1 month.

Verbena propagation by cuttings

It is necessary to take a ripe healthy plant and at the beginning of spring to separate cuttings from it, each with 5 leaves. Plant branches in the ground until the first kidney and be sure to water. Cover the container with glass and allow the kidneys to develop. In early summer, transplant into open ground.

Pests and diseases

Due to improper care or due to other circumstances, the plant may be attacked by pests or susceptible to disease. To avoid such incidents, it is worthwhile to carefully examine the bushes and immediately take measures when the first symptoms appear, but the most effective measure is timely prevention.

ProblemCauseRemedy
Powdery Mildew A characteristic symptom is the manifestation of bright spots on the foliage and stem. Then drops appear throughout the plant. The disease leads to decay of the verbena.Excessive hydration, stagnation of water.For preventive purposes, it is worth treating the plant with bitertanol. Already sick - foundationazole. A verbena with an advanced stage is subject to destruction.
Black foot or root rot. The name speaks for itself - the plant stops its development, gradually decays, fades and ends with death.Incorrect drainage system, waterlogging.Due to the rapid spread of the fungus, the affected verbena must be removed immediately.
Aphids, thrips. Insect pests, the presence of which becomes noticeable already at the stage of their significant reproduction. They impede and complicate the natural processes of energy production by the plant, while they themselves spend its resources.Favorable conditions for reproduction.Regular inspection, at the first sign - treatment with insecticides.
Gray rot. The causative agent affects the leaves, then passes to the stem, later the plant weakens and becomes covered with brown spots, after which a dusty coating appears. As a result, all parts of the plant die - including flowers and fruits.The presence of dead tissue in conjunction with a factor of high humidity.Fungicide treatment.
Spider mite. Signs of his presence: cobwebs on the leaves and yellow dots (punctures).Favorable environment.The use of acaricide.

Mr. Summer resident recommends: verbena and its beneficial properties

The presence of essential oils, a large concentration of glycosides and flavonoids that have a beneficial effect on the human body, has contributed to the use of verbena as:

  • Tonic and restorative ingredient;
  • Means stimulating the metabolism in the body;
  • Antipyretic drugs;
  • Antibacterial;
  • Spasmodic drug.

For external use, it promotes the regeneration of the skin. It is enough to put on the wound in the form of lotions. It fights the symptoms of various skin diseases, especially such as:

  • Ulcer;
  • Rash;
  • Eczema;
  • Furunculosis;
  • Scabies;
  • Psoriasis;
  • Acne;
  • Boils.

It is also possible to use as a mouthwash, for this it is necessary to prepare a decoction of verbena. The mixture perfectly neutralizes odors.

Verbena is suitable for people complaining of a mental state, problems with the nervous system, in particular, it will have a positive effect on stress, frustration, emotional stress and even epilepsy.

There is also a tonic effect from verbena, which will be an indispensable solution for people suffering from chronic fatigue and exhaustion.

A number of problems of the female genitourinary system can be easily solved by using a perennial. Previously, verbena was an ingredient in the aphrodisiac. Normalizes sexual function in men.

Verbena has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, including blood circulation, blood vessels and cholesterol. Normalizes digestion, promotes the appearance of appetite.

There are a number of contraindications to the use of the plant. It is strictly forbidden to take drugs based on verbena to pregnant women, as this is fraught with premature birth or interruption of the pregnancy process. It is necessary to suspend the use of the plant during lactation, or consult with your doctor first.