Pachisandra is a green groundcover. It is famous for not changing appearance during the entire vegetative period. For several years, shady areas of the garden are covered with a continuous carpet of decorative unpretentious plants.
Pachisandra is a separate genus of the boxwood family. It is found in the temperate climate of North America and Asia (China, Japan). The plant has a very long and developed root system, which is located superficially and covers large areas.
Pachisander stalks are strong, erect, their maximum length is 35 cm. Oval or ovate leaves are located along the entire height of the stem. The length of each of them is 3-6 cm, and the width is 2-4 cm. The surface of the sheet is glossy, bright green, serrated edges with a pointed end. The leaves are attached to the stem with short petioles (5-15 mm) and are located in three tiers. In total, from 5 to 10 leaves are counted on one plant.
Pachisander flowers appear in mid-May; they are not attractive. At the top of the stem a small spike-shaped inflorescence grows, 3-5 cm long. It contains both male and female flowers. The top of the spike is covered with stamen buds 3-4 mm wide; stamens up to 12 mm long are issued from them. In spiral colors two spiral columns are formed at once. Inflorescences spread a delicate, pleasant aroma.
By the end of August, flowering ends and seeds form in the leaflets. Drupe fruit is hardly noticeable, it has an ovoid or spherical shape and a light color. Seeds are located in dense triangular boxes. They remain closed even after full maturity. The length of the fetus is 9-11 mm.
The small genus of pachisander has only 4 varieties and several decorative varieties. The most widespread pachisandra apical. Her homeland is Japan. This plant does not drop leaves and has a dark green hue of vegetation. The height of the stems does not exceed 20 cm, the curtains actively grow in breadth. The stems and veins on the leaves are fleshy, distinguished by relief and a reddish tinge. The leaves are serrated, drawn together vertically in pronounced tiers. Leaf blades are rhombic or obovate, 5-10 cm long. Inflorescences 25-35 mm long are formed on the tops of last year's shoots. White or greenish flowers have a faint purple hue. Flowering occurs in April-May, then a fleshy drupe is formed. The length of the fetus is about 12 mm. Variety resistant to frost up to -28 ° C.
The apical pachisander has decorative varieties:
- greencarpet - undersized variety (up to 15 cm) with bright green leaves;
- green tire - 12-18 cm high shoots, covered with glossy, bright foliage;
- silverage - on the leaves there is a narrow, white-silver border, the height of the plants is 15-20 cm;
- variegate - an uneven white strip is located along the edge of the foliage, the plant is tall (20-30 cm), needs sun and does not tolerate frosts.
Pachisandra Japanese - a low plant, barely exceeds 15 cm in length. The ovoid dark green leaves have notches closer to the outer edge. The foliage with a glossy surface is located on the petioles with rosettes in three tiers. The species retains leaves for two years.
Pachisandra axillary It is an evergreen shrub with branched stems. The height of the plant is capable of reaching 45 cm, but the bowl remains within 15-30 cm. A whitish pubescence is observed on young stems and petioles. On one plant, from 3 to 6 leaves are present, which are grouped closer to the apex. The length of dark green oval leaves with a pointed edge is 5-10 cm. The axillary inflorescences are quite short, their size does not exceed 2.5 cm. White flowers exude a weak aroma. The fruit box with three differently directed horns is small in size (up to 6 mm).
Pachisandra recumbent or prostrate distributed in southeast North America. Unlike previous varieties, it discards foliage annually. The height of the curtain does not exceed 30 cm. The color of the stems contains brown-pink tones, the leaves are light green. The surface of shoots, petioles and veins on the underside of the leaves is covered with short whitish villi. The foliage is wide, ovoid, has edges smooth or covered with large teeth. On the leaves there are small brownish-green spots. White with a pink tint flowers are collected in long ears, 10-12 cm in size.
The easiest and most popular way to propagate pachisander is rhizome division or cuttings. The procedure is carried out in mid spring before flowering. The bush is dug up and the roots are cut so as to obtain segments with buds. Young shoots are immediately instilled in moist, fertile soil. You can also cut the cuttings from the stems. They are instilled without pretreatment by a third in the ground. Seedlings quickly take root and immediately begin to develop the ground part.
Seeds have time to set and ripen only in the southern areas. They are sown in the open ground in the fall. The landing site requires additional shelter. In the spring, the first shoots appear, they do not differ in density. Within 2-3 years, pachisander develops a rhizome and only then grows. Flowering seedlings occurs even later, after 4-5 years.
Landing and care
Pachisander is very undemanding to the soil. They grow on light and fertile substrates or heavy, loamy loamy soils. The main requirement is acidity. The plant prefers neutral or slightly acidic soils. It is believed that on light soils, curtains will grow faster in width. But gardeners noticed that the lack of nutrients and fertilizers also leads to the creeping of bushes.
Pachisandra feels good in partial shade or in completely shaded areas. An exception is the variegated form. To her colorful foliage was bright, it is necessary to provide access to the sun.
The plant tolerates frosts well, it needs shelter only in the northern regions. In the first winter, young shoots should be sprinkled with fallen leaves. After wintering, it will become a good fertilizer.
Perennials prefer moist, but not wetlands, do not need regular feeding. Resistant to parasites and common diseases.
Some gardeners note that after transplanting the bushes do not grow well during the first two years. But from the third year they turn into a continuous carpet. Young stems from root growth buds can be located at a considerable distance from each other. To get a continuous cover, you should divide the roots and plant them more often. To make the pachisander grow, you can trim the tops of the stems.
Pachisandra is used to decorate the lawn and form a solid green coating in shady places. Under the lush crowns of deciduous or coniferous plants, where most ground covers feel insecure, the pachisander creates dense thickets or circles around the trunks. It prevents the spread of weeds. Low shoots look good along paths or rocky stairs. Effective in combination with hosta and astilbe.