Almost all gardeners grow radishes in home gardens. It belongs to precocious crops, therefore it rarely suffers from diseases and pests, especially with proper care. But he still has no absolute protection. If the gardener does not give plantings at least minimal attention, it is likely that fungal diseases or pests will develop. Therefore, you need to know the characteristic symptoms, be able to identify the problem and know how to cope with it. At an early stage, as a rule, there are enough folk remedies, in other cases it will be necessary to use "heavy artillery" in the form of chemicals.
General measures to prevent the development of diseases and attacks of radish pests
A short ripening period is one of the benefits of radish. Many pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses, eggs and insect larvae simply do not have time to go through the incubation period in order to cause significant damage to plantings. But this does not mean that, in principle, culture cannot suffer from diseases and pests.
To avoid negative consequences in the form of crop loss, it is advisable to pay regular attention to preventive measures. There is nothing complicated in them, they will take very little time. But such events, coupled with competent agricultural technology, make it almost guaranteed to protect the landing from unwanted "guests".
A careful inspection of the beds at least once every 4-5 days helps to detect the problem on time. In the early stages of infection, as a rule, in order to cope with it, enough folk remedies that are harmless to human health and the environment. Chemicals, especially those that do not belong to preparations of biological origin, are very undesirable for the treatment of radishes. The culture is early ripening, harmful substances accumulate in root crops.
Plants with good immunity get sick much less often than those in which it is weakened. Soaking seeds before planting in a solution of any biostimulant positively affects it. A similar effect is obtained both from drugs purchased in the store (Epin, potassium humate, Emistim-M), and folk remedies (aloe juice, honey, succinic acid). But the excess of nitrogen in the soil provides the opposite result, weakening the plants. This macroelement in large doses has one more negative consequence - radish begins to actively form leaves to the detriment of root crops. Strengthen immunity potassium and phosphorus. Their natural source is wood ash.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, seeds are planted for 15-20 minutes before planting in a solution of any fungicide of biological origin. The most common drugs are Strobi, Tiovit-Jet, Alirin-B, Bayleton.
A necessary condition for obtaining a plentiful crop in a personal plot is a crop rotation. Radishes for 3-4 years should not be planted where other crops from the Cruciferous family had grown before (all types of cabbage, turnip, radish, rutabaga, turnip, daikon). In general, whenever possible, they are placed away from each other. They draw the same nutrients from the soil, suffer from similar diseases. Many weeds used by pathogens as a “transshipment base” also belong to this family. Therefore, do not forget about regular weeding.
Radish seeds are planted as little as possible. With thickened plantings, diseases spread much faster. Plants are not ventilated, which is also harmful to them. Proper watering is also important. Drops on leaves and stems should be avoided.
In the autumn, they dig a bed or at least deeply loosen it. This helps to destroy fungal spores wintering in the soil, eggs and pest larvae. All plant debris is collected and burned. It is strictly forbidden to use fresh manure as a top dressing. It is an excellent breeding ground for them, and also helps to maintain the heat necessary for frost.
Radish does not have any specific diseases. Most often, it is affected by the most common fungal, bacterial or viral diseases that do not bypass any garden crops in general or plants from the Cruciferous family.
Belle of cabbage crops (white rust)
All Cruciferous plants suffer to one degree or another from the disease, but radishes, horseradish and turnips are affected more often than cabbage. It is most dangerous for young plants. The optimum temperature for the development of the fungus is about 15 ° C. Another risk factor is cool rainy weather or sudden changes in temperature, causing fogs and / or heavy dew.
Light green spots appear on the front of the sheet. The tissues in these places thicken, gradually turn brown and die. Pustules similar to abscesses form on the inside. The leaf around them swells. When they “break through”, a whitish, oily shiny coating becomes visible, as if flakes of peeling paint. On root crops, if they have time to ripen, there are growths that resemble those that are characteristic of keel. The radish can go into color, the stem begins to branch intensively, turning into something similar to deer horns. If nothing is done, it dries and dies.
With severe damage, fungicides of biological origin are used - Ridomil-Gold, Ditan-M, Folicur. Folk remedies are effective in the early stages of the development of the disease and for prevention. This, for example, a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, soda ash or baking soda, colloidal sulfur (10-15 g per 10 l). To make the solution “stick” to the treated plants better, add a little liquid soap or soap shavings (3-5 ml or 10-15 g) to it. Preventive treatments are carried out every 7-10 days (or more often if it rains constantly). To combat the disease, radishes are sprayed 3-4 times with an interval of 4-5 days.
A specific disease that is very dangerous for all Cruciferous. The gardener may lose at least half of the total crop. Often, he generally disappears completely. The causative agent of the fungus is extremely rare. In those beds where the keel has proved itself, potentially infected crops are not planted for 8-10 years. You can reduce this period to 4-5 years by placing tomatoes, potatoes, beets or any Legumes there.
On the aboveground part of the plant, the keel does not appear in any way. During the incubation period (20-30 days), outgrowths of different sizes in the shape of a ball or spindle-shaped are formed on the roots and root crops. Gradually they turn brown and rot. The stalk turns yellow, the leaves dry and lie down, as the plant does not receive enough water and nutrients.
Factors favorable to the development of keels are too frequent and / or plentiful watering, unsuitable heavy soil, in which moisture stagnates for a long time, acidity of the substrate, high temperature (from 25 ° C). But you can’t completely forget about watering - the keel causes the greatest damage during a long drought. The disease spreads through infected seeds, soil, manure, it is carried by worms that live in the soil. It affects not only the "cultured" Cruciferous, but also wild-growing ones (shepherd’s bag, colza).
Practice shows that radish is much less affected by keel during early planting. Etching in Cumulus solution also helps to avoid infection.
Means for the treatment of keel have not yet been developed. The main emphasis should be placed on preventive measures. 2-3 days before planting the seeds, the soil is loosened, sealed with sifted wood ash, or watered with so-called milk of lime (two glasses of hydrated lime per 10 l of water). You can also process the bed with a solution of Carbation (40 g per 10 l) or Fundazole (10 g per 10 l).
A very dangerous viral disease that can affect most garden crops. Infected specimens lag behind in growth and development, leaves are deformed and smaller. The front side of the leaf plate is covered with lettuce or yellowish-green spots located between the veins. Depending on what specific virus infected the plant, they can take the form of circles, strokes, angular spots. Gradually, these tissues blacken and die. The veins are also getting dark.
With the help of modern means, it is impossible to get rid of the mosaic virus. The only way to stop its spread is to remove all affected plants from the bed and burn them as quickly as possible.
The best prevention is competent crop care and keeping the beds clean. It is especially important to strengthen the plant's immunity by timely and in the right doses, making the necessary fertilizers. Before planting, radish seeds are recommended to be etched in a solution of Rovral, Horus, Topaz. The carriers of the virus are many insects, for example, weevils, aphids, ticks. We must not forget about the fight against them.
A very common disease, not a single garden culture is safe from it. Leaves and petioles are covered with a layer of powdery whitish or pale gray plaque, resembling scattered flour. If nothing is done, it becomes denser and changes color, turning into large brown spots with black spots on the surface. The tissues affected by the fungus die off, holes form. Sheet plates are deformed. As a rule, the leaves closest to the soil become the first to become infected.
Most often, radishes are affected by powdery mildew in hot, humid weather. Another risk factor is sudden changes in temperature. The fungus is spread by the wind, with drops of water, in direct contact of infected and healthy plants. Productivity falls by 50% or more, and the quality of root crops decreases.
For the prevention of powdery mildew, as a rule, enough folk remedies. Radish is sprayed at least once a week with a solution of colloidal sulfur, infusion of wood ash, sour milk or yogurt, diluted with water, a decoction of horsetail rhizomes. If time has already been lost and the fungus has spread en masse, copper-containing preparations, fungicides, are used. The experience of gardeners indicates that the best effect in the fight against powdery mildew is given by Skor, Quadris, Rayek, Fundazim. Of the drugs of biological origin - Alirin-B, Gamair, Planriz. But some rely on old time-tested remedies - copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid.
Video: how to protect plants from powdery mildew
Peronosporosis (downy mildew)
Characteristic symptoms primarily appear on the leaves. They become covered with small angular spots with an oily surface. Gradually, their color changes from salad to straw yellow and dark brown. If the weather is wet, the wrong side of the sheet is pulled by a continuous layer of mauve-plaque, reminiscent of felt. The whole process takes 10-13 days.
To prevent the development of the disease, radishes are sprayed twice during the growing season with boric acid diluted in water (10-15 g per 10 l) or Pseudobacterin, Rizoplan. From folk remedies, infusion of onion or garlic arrows, wormwood is used. Seeds are soaked in a solution of Bud, Energen, potassium humate, Fitosporin-M. To combat the disease, they use the same drugs that are recommended for the destruction of the fungus that causes powdery mildew.
Brown spots are blurred on the roots, quickly dragging on a layer of “fluffy” gray-gray plaque with small black “specks”. The tissues underneath soften and rot, the stalk and petioles become watery, the leaves lose their tone. Contributes to the development of the disease high humidity in combination with low air temperature.
To prevent the development of gray rot, wood ash is periodically introduced into the soil, plants are dusted with colloidal sulfur or powdered activated carbon. They can also be sprayed with mustard powder or iodine diluted with water (50 g or 10 drops per 10 l, respectively). Several crystals of potassium permanganate are added to water for irrigation once every 7-10 days. It is useful to surround the garden with plants that produce natural phytoncides - marigolds, marigold, nasturtiums.
If gray rot is noticed on time, the plants and the soil are treated with the following solution - for 10 liters of water take a glass of sifted wood ash and crushed chalk, add 10-12 ml of copper sulfate. In case of mass infection, Teldor, Horus, Switch, Gamair drugs are used. But this does not guarantee success.
Most often, the disease affects adult plants, seedlings are practically not affected. The veins on the leaves turn black, then spots of the same color spread around them. The leaf plate turns yellow, as if "crumbling." Radish growth slows down, petioles are deformed.
Risk factors - high humidity, heat, the presence of mechanical damage. The disease is carried by insects, raindrops. The bacterium inhabits plant debris, unspoiled manure, is stored in seeds from infected plants, maintaining viability for 2-3 seasons. For disinfection, planting material immediately before planting is immersed in hot (45-50 ° C) water for 15-20 minutes.
To prevent infection, 10-12 days after the emergence of seedlings, radish seedlings are sprayed with Planriz or Trichodermin. In the early stages of infection, the radish can be saved by treating it with Binoram or Fitolavin. If the disease has gone far in its development, the plants can no longer be helped.
A fungal disease that affects mainly young shoots. Adult, stronger plants have sufficient resistance. The base of the stem blackens and thins, seedlings lie on the ground under its own weight.Leaves turn yellow, the plant dries. The disease develops quite quickly, as a rule, affected plants can no longer help. But it’s quite possible to prevent the appearance of a “black leg”.
The most important preventive measure is proper watering. The fungus also loves fresh air (when growing radishes in a greenhouse, it needs to be regularly ventilated), heat and acidified substrate. Seeds are sown on time, not earlier. Low temperature and light deficiency negatively affect the immunity of plants.
Seeds must undergo preplant planting. They are soaked in an infusion of garlic gruel, a dark raspberry potassium permanganate solution. The soil on the bed 3-4 days before radish is shed with a solution of colloidal sulfur or hot water, and immediately after the procedure, sprinkle with a thin layer of fine sand. Pounded charcoal or chalk is poured to the stems of the appeared seedlings, the plants themselves are dusted with sifted wood ash. Water for irrigation is periodically replaced with a solution of Fitosporin-M or Bactofit, reducing its concentration by half compared with the recommended manufacturer. Folk remedies - infusion of onion husks or green marigolds.
Finding that several plants have become infected, they drastically reduce watering to the required minimum, allowing the soil to dry well. The soil is loosened, introducing in the process granules of Trichodermin, Gliocladin, Barrier.
Video: methods of dealing with the "black leg"
Common Radish Pests
There are a lot of pests that can cause significant damage to the radish. These are insects that infect exclusively Cruciferous, and "omnivores" that attack most other garden crops.
Small (up to 0.3 cm in diameter) black bugs, casting in the sun golden, turn radish leaves into a sieve in a very short time. They have a very good jumping ability, due to which they travel considerable distances relatively quickly. In winter, the pest waits in the upper layers of the soil, under the foliage. The females of the cruciferous flea lay eggs on the leaves, the larvae hatching from them eat the roots of the plants. Insects do not like heat and high humidity, in such weather their activity decreases sharply.
In order to scare away the cruciferous flea from the beds, the soil where radish sprouts appeared is sprinkled with a mixture of sifted ash with crushed dried tobacco leaves, ground pepper, mustard powder. You can simply prevent the pest from entering the garden if you tighten it with any white air-tight covering material. During the growing season, radishes are treated every 5-7 days with infusion of dandelion leaves, tomato tops or potatoes, vinegar diluted in water (25-30 ml of essence per 10 l). Along the perimeter of the beds are surrounded by a naphthalene barrier.
In the event of a mass invasion, chemicals are used. Decis, Sherpa, Aktara, Lightning show themselves in the best way. An alternative is a flea-proof shampoo for pets (40-50 ml per 10 l). You can also catch bugs manually by constructing something like a flag. A piece of cloth is attached in a stick, greased with something sticky and passed along the top of the radish.
Females lay eggs on leaves, the first generation of larvae hatch in late June, the second in September. Striped greenish-yellow caterpillars are able to eat around the plant in a few days, leaving only petioles from the leaves of the radish.
When the first butterflies appear in the garden, to prevent them from laying eggs, the soil and the plants themselves are sprayed with infusions of any herbs with a sharp characteristic smell (wormwood, tomato tops, rosemary, basil, sage). Of the chemicals for the same purpose, Entobacterin, Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide are used. You can still tighten the bed with a fine mesh, add a few drops of lavender essential oil or any citruses to the water for irrigation. Traps are hung next to it - cut plastic bottles filled with sugar syrup, honey or jam diluted with water. A similar effect is given by a sticky tape for catching flies.
Experienced gardeners are advised to "cheat" butterflies by scattering pieces of eggshell in the garden. Their insects are mistaken for "relatives" and fly on, being sure that "the place is already taken."
Caterpillars are destroyed with the help of Kinmix, Sumi Alpha, Actellik. You can make them leave the garden by dusting the soil with wood ash mixed with any spice or spice - mustard, cinnamon, saffron, ginger.
Spring cabbage fly
It can cause radish plantings very serious harm. The peak of its activity occurs in the second half of May and early June (you can focus on the beginning of flowering of lilac and bird cherry). Just at that time, gardeners are actively planting culture. Females lay eggs in the upper layers of the soil, the larvae penetrate the roots and eat them from the inside, severely damaging the emerging root crops, then pass into the petioles. The plant fades, leaves acquire an unnatural bluish tint.
To scare away the cabbage fly, the bed is sprinkled 3-5 days after the emergence of sprouts with a mixture of tobacco dust with camphor and dry bay leaf crushed to a powdery state. Along the perimeter and in the aisles, it is recommended to plant marigolds, parsley, celery, coriander. As mulch, materials with a rather rough texture are used - wood shavings, sawdust. All measures are also applicable to scare away the butterflies of the whale.
In the event of a massive invasion of caterpillars, chemicals are used. Karate, Antio, Iskra-Bio, Rovikurt have proved themselves in the best way. They also do not tolerate ammonia and vinegar. For 10 liters of water, 5 ml is enough.
It is very difficult not to notice the pest on the radish. Its red-black striped and spotty color contrasts very effectively with bright green leaves. Females lay eggs on leaves; hatching individuals hibernate in leaf foliage and other plant debris. They come out of hibernation in the second half of April or in early May, the period of their activity continues until August. Radish receives maximum damage in hot, dry weather. Bed bugs feed on plant juice. Where they have inflicted mechanical damage, “wounds” remain, which gradually turn into areas of dead tissue with a yellowish border.
The experience of gardeners proves that the pest does not tolerate the smell of tansy. It is useful to plant this plant around the perimeter of the garden with radishes or periodically spray it with an infusion of greenery. A good effect of dates is tampons moistened with kerosene or turpentine and laid out between rows.
Having discovered the first pests on the plant, you can simply collect them manually. To make them leave, radishes and soil in the garden are sprayed with infusions of chamomile, onion husks. The most effective chemicals are Fosbetsid, Belofos, Aktara.
An inconspicuous grayish-brown butterfly does no harm to plants. What can not be said about her maggots. Yellowish caterpillars, gradually changing color to salad green, eat out longitudinal tunnels in the leaf tissues. Then they come to the surface and continue to feed on them. Affected leaf blades fade and dry. From hibernation, insects wake up, as soon as the air warms up to 10 ° C, their activity does not stop until October-November. The maximum damage to radishes is caused in the heat with prolonged absence of rainfall.
Folk remedies in the fight against a pest do not give a special effect. The maximum that they can - slightly slow down the activity of the tracks. Recommended, for example, infusion of dried lavender or peel of any citrus. Therefore, in order to destroy them, you have to resort to chemicals - Ambush, Nurell-D, Talkord. Adult butterflies are scared away using methods recommended for controlling whitewash.
For some reason, they also have a special love for yellow. This can be used by making traps from pieces of cardboard or plywood of the corresponding shade, smeared with something sticky and dry for a long time.
Dirty yellow butterfly with blurry brown spots and strokes on the wings. It leads a nocturnal lifestyle, so it is quite difficult to notice its appearance on time. Its caterpillars, as it were, scrape off the upper layer of tissue from the leaves, leaving “notches” - the gates for all kinds of infections and other pests. Especially well characteristic damage is noticeable on the inside of the sheet.
Adults are destroyed by traps. A light source is placed in a cropped plastic bottle, smearing its walls with something sticky. You can also use Bitoxibacillin, Dendrobacillin. Against caterpillars, the best effect is given by the preparations Anometrin, Ripkord, Sumitsidin, Gomelin. If they managed to notice their appearance on time, folk remedies help well, but they do not have any negative effect on the eggs of the fire. The radish and the soil in the garden are recommended to be treated with infusion of sifted wood ash, tomato tops.
The rapeseed sawfly caterpillar is painted in greenish-gray or olive color with brown longitudinal stripes and the abdomen is slightly lighter. The adult is extremely small - the body length does not exceed 6-8 mm, the body and limbs have a bright saffron hue, the head is black, as if covered with varnish. The pest eats leaves almost completely, leaving only petioles. The radish dries and dies, root crops do not form. A horticulturist who does nothing can lose 80-95% of the total crop.
For prevention, radish seeds are soaked for 10-15 minutes before planting in a solution of Karate or Actellik. Adults are scared away from plantings using Bitoxibacillin. From folk remedies for treating plants and soil, you can use infusions of chamomile, needles, tansy, aconite (the latter is very toxic). Caterpillars effectively destroys Mospilan, Kinmiks, Arrivo, Fury. If there are few of them yet, you can spray the plantings diluted in water with calcined or baking soda, mustard powder (40-50 g per 10 l).
The bug looks pretty nice - lacquered black, it casts blue-green in the sun (to this he owes his nickname "glitter" or "glitter"). He waits for winter in the upper layers of the soil, as soon as the air warms up to 10-12ºС, wakes up and goes outside. As a rule, it causes the greatest damage to rape (hence the name), eating flower buds from the inside, but does not disdain other Cruciferous (even wild), in particular, radish. Crop losses range from 20 to 70%. It depends on how purposefully the gardener fights the pest. The peak of its activity lasts from the second half of May until the end of June.
Folk remedies in this case do not give any effect at all. Therefore, having discovered the first individuals on plants, any insecticides from the pyrethroid group are used. The most popular of them are Karate, Zeon, Kinmix, Fastak. You can try to "distract" it from the radish by planting some rape or colza nearby.
Shell-free grayish-beige mollusks feeding on root crops and radish greens. They can destroy young shoots completely. In adult specimens, large holes in leaf tissues are eaten out, through “tunnels” in root crops are made. A sticky trace remains on the surface, casting silvery in the sun. Slugs do not like heat and dry air, therefore they prefer to hide during the day (for example, under stones, boards, leaves), leading mainly a nocturnal lifestyle.
It is quite difficult to remove slugs. It is much easier to prevent them from appearing in the garden. To do this, build several traps - deep tanks dug into the soil, about half full of chopped cabbage, kvass, beer, fermented compote or jam. The roots of root crops are surrounded by a "barrier" of wood ash, crushed chalk, sand, pine needles, ground walnut or egg shells. Around the beds and in the aisles, any aromatic greens and other plants with a sharp aroma are planted. You can also place fresh nettle or wormwood leaves there.
Slugs have natural enemies - birds, frogs, hedgehogs. Attracting them to your own site is not so difficult. You can, for example, build a birdhouse or a small pond, periodically expose plates with milk and so on.
Having found several individuals, radishes and soil in the garden are sprayed with infusion of chili peppers or mustard powder diluted in water. There are, although extremely rare, cases of massive invasion of slugs. Then you can’t do without chemicals. From the best side, the drugs Meta, Thunderstorm, Sludge have recommended themselves.
Video: ways to fight slugs
Extremely "omnivorous" pest, not disdain for the absolute majority of garden crops. Radish is no exception. Aphid is a small insect of greenish-yellow, pale-lettuce or black-brown color. It feeds on the sap of plants, attacking it with entire colonies. Many insects cling to the underside of leaves, especially young ones. Affected tissue areas become discolored; they look like small translucent beige dots on the lumen. Leaves are deformed, turn yellow and dry.
Aphids live in a steady symbiosis with ants. It is impossible to get it out of the garden, if you do not at the same time attend to the struggle with these insects too.
Aphids do not like strong strong odors. Therefore, spicy herbs, onions, garlic, fennel, marigolds, calendula, lavender will be good neighbors for radishes. Many of them are good honey carriers, attracting the attention of a natural aphid enemy - a ladybug. From their greenery, infusions are prepared with which plants and soil are sprayed. Other suitable raw materials are orange peels, needles, dried tobacco leaves, mustard powder.
There are plants, on the contrary, that attract aphids. This, for example, nasturtium, petunia, viburnum, linden, bird cherry.
Having discovered the first individuals, radishes are sprayed with foam of household, green potash or tar soap. After about half an hour, it will need to be washed off with clean water. Then apply the same infusions that were used for prevention, reducing the intervals between treatments from 8-10 days to 6-8 hours.
In the event of a massive aphid invasion, any general-acting insecticides are used. The most popular drugs are Inta-Vir, Confidor-Maxi, Iskra-Bio, Admiral, Tanrek.
Video: how to deal with aphids in the garden
The beetle affects the plantings of the Cruciferous, including radish, in most of Russia, with the exception of the Far East and Eastern Siberia. His color is very interesting - a bottle-green body with dark brown paws. Elytra as if relief, eight dents clearly visible on the head, similar to dots. Beetles begin to show activity in early June.
The pest gradually eats up the leaf plate, “scraping” the layers of tissue. The leaves become thinner, acquire an unnatural rusty shade, become as if "rotten". Through holes gradually appear with torn edges. Females lay eggs in cracks in the affected tissues, larvae winter in the soil.
For prevention, the soil on the bed is sprinkled with a mixture of ash with mustard powder and ground hot pepper. The radish itself is sprayed with vinegar diluted with water (15-20 ml of essence per 10 liters of water). Other popular folk remedies - infusion of tops of tomatoes, chamomile, yarrow.
On plants, beetles are very striking, so you can simply collect them manually. But it takes a lot of time. It’s much faster to shake them on an oilcloth or newspaper spread out on a bed. It is best to carry out the procedure early in the morning when they do not show much activity. Of the insecticides, Sherpa, Angio, Fury, Actara are most effective.
Radish is one of the easiest crops to grow. Caring for her, in fact, is reduced to the necessary minimum. The vegetable suffers from diseases and pests rather rarely, but nevertheless it is not completely immune from this. To avoid the loss of a significant portion or the entire crop, plantings should be regularly inspected for suspicious symptoms. And if these are identified, use the recommended folk remedies or chemicals. The best thing is not to forget about preventative measures. As a rule, they are quite enough to avoid infection.