Golden currant is an unpretentious and productive plant. Suitable for cultivation in almost any terrain. However, in order to get a good harvest, you need to choose the right variety suitable for a particular region.
History of growing golden currants
Golden currant is one of the little-known varieties of this plant. It comes from North America, from where it was brought to Europe in the 18th century. Originally grown only in the botanical garden - at the beginning of the 19th century only one variety was cultivated called Crandal.
Active work on the selection of other varieties of golden currant was begun during the Soviet era. When searching for drought-tolerant plants for protective shelterbelts, golden currants were found to be excellent for this purpose. Therefore, the plant in the 30s of the last century spread throughout Siberia, Altai, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.
Currants began to be called golden because of beautiful bright yellow flowers with a pleasant smell.
After a break from breeding in connection with the war in the late 1940s, the institute named after him bred new varieties of golden currant. Schroeder (Tashkent city). About 20 new high-yielding varieties were obtained, which served as the basis for breeding work in Russian scientific institutions:
Golden Currant Characteristics
In general, golden currant is characterized by high resistance to weather conditions, lack of moisture, disease, pest attacks, as well as unpretentiousness to soil conditions. Often used for soil protection (anti-erosion) plantings.
Bushes can reach solid sizes - 2 m in height and even more. Leaves grow after flowering. In shape, they are similar to gooseberries, which is why there is an erroneous opinion about the origin of golden currants from gooseberry hybridization.
Golden currant leaves are poisonous - they contain hydrocyanic acid compounds. True, they are devoid of currant smell, so it is unlikely that there will be a temptation to brew them.
The flowering of golden currants occurs in late May - early June and lasts about three weeks. Since the threat of spring frost has already passed by this time, the flowers are well pollinated, which guarantees a plentiful harvest.
Fruits appear in the second half of summer. They contain a large amount of vitamins B and C (although not as much as black and red currants), carotene, they taste good and are well suited for making juices, compotes, and wine. Berries contain very little acid, so they can be consumed by patients with peptic ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract.
Video: features of golden currant
Rules of landing and care
Golden currants are very easy to plant and grow.
Choosing a place and landing rules
Golden currants do not require any special conditions. Almost any soil is suitable, even saline. The plant prefers the sun, but can also grow in shading. If there is no flat area, currants can perfectly exist on the slope.
To ensure good yields, you need to purchase high-quality seedlings. Annuals with well-developed roots are perfect.
You can plant both in spring (during the period of swelling of the kidneys), and in autumn. In the Moscow region, autumn planting is recommended (from the second decade of September to early October).
It is advisable to prepare the soil for planting in 2-3 months - to make organic fertilizers (2-2.5 buckets per 1 m2) and dig to the depth of the bayonet. The diameter of the pit should correspond to the size of the expanded root system, and the depth is 10-12 cm. The planted bush is abundantly watered and mulched with humus. It is advisable to prune the stems, leaving "stumps" with 3-5 buds.
Fruiting usually begins the year after planting. It is enough to water currants 3-4 times a season, in case of extreme heat.
Currant transplant to a new place
The need for transplantation usually arises when growing cuttings in a school. In this case, you should:
- Prepare the pit in advance according to the same rules as for landing.
- Pour 0.5-1 bucket of water into the pit.
- Carefully dig out the bush, trying not to damage the roots and plant it in a permanent place.
- Compact the soil, water and mulch.
For normal survival of the bush in a new place, you need to regularly water it for the first 2 weeks. The transplant can be carried out in September - October.
Adult bushes of golden currant also quite easily tolerate transplantation. Of course, this will inevitably damage the roots, but with good watering, the bush usually takes root. When transplanting an adult plant, you need to shorten the shoots to a height of 25-30 cm, so that the currant does not spend extra energy on the "supply" of water to long stems.
Video: growing golden currants
Bushes of golden currants live and bear fruit for decades, sometimes even without top dressing. Of course, really good crops are provided by fertilizer application. They begin to feed from the third year of life.
- In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, contributing to the good growth of currants. To do this, use carbamide (30 g per 1 plant).
- In the fall, organic matter (6-7 kg each) is mixed with potassium salts (2-2.5 teaspoons) and superphosphate (0.1-0.12 kg).
- At the end of the fruit collection, the plants are fed complex fertilizer with a low nitrogen content.
Golden currants do not require a special approach to pruning. It is necessary to regularly remove dried and broken branches and periodically rejuvenate the bush. In the conditions of the Moscow Region, the upper parts of shoots on young plants can freeze, so that in spring the affected parts must be cut off. Currant is easily restored after these injuries.
If you do not prune the bushes, they will grow more than 2 m in height, especially in the shade.
The most productive are shoots of golden currant, not reaching 5-6 years. You need to start forming a bush from the second year after planting. Weak branches are cut to the root, the tops of strong branches - up to 3-5 buds. This promotes branching.
Branches older than 4-5 years and an extra one-year growth are annually removed, leaving only the strongest shoots. Pruning is carried out before the swelling of the kidneys or after leaf fall.
Weak root branches should be removed regularly. If the bush ceases to form basal shoots, then its active aging begins.
With intensive growth in the third year of life in May - June, it is advisable to pinch the tops of the root shoots. Then from these shoots you get branches that can give a harvest for next year.
Golden currants can very easily be propagated on their own - with the help of cuttings, layering and root shoots. Reproduction by seeds is not recommended: seedlings obtained in this way do not inherit the qualities of parent plants.
Cuttings are a proven and reliable method of propagation. You can use both green and lignified cuttings.
Lignified cuttings are more convenient - planting material can easily be taken from an adult currant bush. Cut them in late August - early September, using last year's healthy shoots. The length of the cuttings should be 25-30 cm.
You can plant cuttings immediately after cutting - in the fall. If you plan to land in the spring, then you need:
- Dip the cuttings into molten paraffin, wrap them in moist paper or cloth, tie them in a plastic bag and put them in the winter under the snow.
- In spring, cut off the paraffin-embedded part at an angle of 45 ° and plant it in greenhouses or open ground at an angle of 15-20 cm from each other. Shanks should be buried so that two buds remain above the surface.
- Planting is good to water and mulch the soil. When planting in open ground, cover the cuttings with a film until several leaves appear.
Planting should be periodically ventilated, provide them with regular watering, loosening the soil and top dressing with mullein. By autumn, bushes 40-50 cm high are obtained, which can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Propagation by green cuttings is as follows:
- Cut the cuttings 8-10 cm long from the middle of the shoot so that they have 2 leaves.
- Put these segments for 2 weeks in water, as a result of which roots about 1 cm long should appear.
- Cuttings are planted in bags filled with moist soil. The bags should have openings for drainage of excess water.
- Water the first 10 days every other day, maintaining a creamy soil texture. Then watering gradually stop.
- When the cuttings reach a length of 0.5 m, plant them on a bed.
This is a very simple and reliable method of reproduction.
- Choose a 2 year old shoot on the bush. It is desirable that he be inclined to the ground.
- Near the bush, lay grooves with a depth of 10-12 cm, then bend selected shoots into them and fill it with earth so that a 15-20 cm section remains on the surface. Layers securely attached to the soil with metal brackets or wooden "clothespins."
- Water the bush regularly and remove weeds during the summer.
- When, by fall, the layers will have their own roots, separate it from the mother bush.
Since currants constantly give root offspring, this method of reproduction is quite convenient. You need to choose a 1- or 2-year-old offspring, carefully dig out its root system and separate it with a sharp shovel from the mother bush. True, in the case of golden currants, the root shoot is located close to the main bush and the roots may be mixed up, which creates problems in the separation of the shoot.
Pest and disease protection
Golden currant is highly resistant to diseases and attacks of harmful insects. Nevertheless, in humid climates, some varieties may be affected by anthracnose, gray rot, and septoria. For the prevention of diseases, it is necessary to prevent bush thickening by pruning, regularly eliminate fallen leaves. In early spring, it is recommended to spray the plants with a urea solution (0.6 kg per bucket of water). If diseases are detected, plantings should be treated with 1% Bordeaux fluid.
Of the pests, it is mainly necessary to be careful of aphids that infect young shoots. It causes twisting of leaves, curvature of shoots and petioles, slow growth, deterioration of the quality of berries. They fight aphids by spraying bushes before flowering with a solution of Malathion (1.5 liters per bush). Processing is repeated after harvesting. You can use folk remedies - a decoction of onion husks, garlic, tobacco.
Photo gallery: diseases and pests of golden currant
- With anthracnosis, brown spots appear on the leaves
- Septoria (white spotting) affects leaves and berries
- Fruits affected by gray rot are covered with plaque and rot
- Aphids suck the juices from a plant, slowing its growth
Golden Currant Varieties
Golden currant today has many species, different in terms of ripening, color and size of berries and other indicators. Varieties with the usual appearance of black fruits include, for example:
- Black raisins. Medium ripening. It differs in the small size and compactness of the bush, which at the same time gives large yields (up to 8 kg). The berries are medium in size - weighing up to 2 g, the flesh inside is golden, juicy and sweet in taste.
- Isabel. Variety with small, slightly spreading bushes. Ripens in mid-August. Bred in Novosibirsk. The taste is sweet with a slight sourness and grape flavor, berries with an average weight of 1.5-3 g. One bush gives 5.3-8 kg of fruit.
- Fatima Early variety with large (up to 3.6 g) rounded oval berries. Productivity is very high - up to 8-9 kg per bush. The taste of berries is very pleasant, sweet with a slight acidity. They contain a large amount of vitamin C (64.3 mg per 100 g) and sugars - 12.6%.
There are varieties of golden currants with yellow or orange berries. These include, for example, currant Sun. It grows to the measure of sprawling, medium-sized bushes. The harvest is ripening by the end of July. Bright yellow spherical berries are collected in elegant brushes of 8-10 pieces. The weight of one berry is about 2 g, they taste sour-sweet, with a pleasant aroma. The yield of the variety is average - up to 4-4.5 kg per 1 bush.
Red berries have a variety of Otrada - late ripening, giving a harvest in August. The cherry-red berries reach a mass of 1.9 g. They are sweet in taste, with subtle acidity. Plants are characterized by high frost, drought, and heat resistance.
In order to pollinate the plants properly and give a large crop, it is useful to plant several bushes of at least two different varieties.
Photo gallery: popular varieties of golden currant
- Isabella is resistant to low temperatures and pests.
- Fatima is a universal variety resistant both to frost and heat
- The bright yellow berries of the Sun variety ripen in late July
- Due to its excellent qualities, the Otrada variety is included in the State Register for the Russian Federation
Varieties of golden currants for Moscow region
The climate in the Moscow Region is temperate continental - the winters are quite mild, and the summers are warm and humid. Soil conditions in the southern part of the Moscow Region (sod-podzolic soils and middle loams) are also well suited for the cultivation of currants. Most varieties of golden currant can be grown in the suburbs, of which 14 are recommended for the conditions of the Moscow region.
The best varieties of golden currants are characterized by high productivity, resistance to adverse weather conditions and immunity to diseases.
- Shafak. A variety of medium ripening. In the State Register this variety has been registered since 2000 and is recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia. Bushes of medium height, sprawling, well-forming shoots. Branches of medium thickness, light green in color with a purple base. The top of the shoots are overhanging. Leaves are green, with a slight pubescence, a dull surface and a serrated edge. Bright yellow flowers are medium in size. Large (3.6 g) oval berries of a dark cherry hue are gathered in thick fruit brushes up to 4 cm long. The taste is good, but without the characteristic smell of currants. The variety is characterized by good winter hardiness, resistance to fungal diseases and high productivity (5-8 kg from 1 bush). Berries contain 13.6% of sugars and 55 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of berries. You can use both fresh and in the form of jams and jams.
- Nutmeg. The variety is recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia. Ripens in the medium term (first half of August). Bushes of great height are notable for their compactness. Not too thick shoots of yellow-green color are covered with medium-sized leaves, green with yellow. The size of the berries is small - 1.3-2 g, the shape is round, slightly flattened. The skin of black color and medium thickness covers juicy and sweet pulp with an unusual smell of muscat. The plant is very resistant to frost and is practically not susceptible to diseases and pests. From one bush you can get 4-5 kg of berries.
- Laysan.Tall bushes have medium sprawl, can be grown in a standard form. It is a wonderful honey plant. The bush gives a lot (5-6 kg) of medium-sized berries (1.5-2.7 g) of dark yellow color, collected in a brush of 6-8 pieces. The taste of the pulp is sweet, with pronounced sourness. The variety is not particularly frost-resistant, freezing of shoots is observed when the temperature drops to -30 ° C.
- Venus. One of the most common varieties. Gives a crop in the early stages (July). It grows in compact, not too branched shrubs with straight high shoots of green. Productivity is very high - up to 12 kg per bush. Berries have an average weight of 2-3.5 g, collected by brushes of 5-7 pieces. The color of the berries is black, the flesh is sweet and juicy, with a slight acidity. Frost resistance is high - Venus withstands temperatures down to -40 ° C.
Photo gallery: varieties recommended for the Moscow Region
- Shafak currant has a beautiful berry color and high yield
- The Muscat variety is resistant to frost and is almost not affected by diseases and pests.
- Laysan - a very productive variety, with fruits of unusual amber color
- Venus is a variety of Bashkir breeding, characterized by high productivity and good taste.
With golden currant seeds, I would never have thought of propagating! Etozh is such a weed, it gives root crops so much - take it, I don’t want to, it multiplies perfectly by layering and seeds ... Why is it so fun to grow on yourself growing from seeds what can be propagated vegetatively without difficulty!Svetlana//honeygarden.ru/viewtopic.php?t=616
I agree this is a weed that grows in almost every yard, and therefore it is not sold. If you ask currants in the market for golden currants, they turn round eyes in surprise, as if I were asking rose sellers about wild rose hips. Go to any horticultural cooperative (or as it is now called) or to the nearest summer cottage sector and just ask people, almost everyone has somewhere in the backyards or behind the fence so as not to clog the plot. They will give you free for just digging. We do not appreciate it. It tastes nothing, but I personally do not like the long dry tails on the berry that do not come off. And there are much less vitamins in it than in the garden. The leaves have no smell and you can’t make tea with them; medicinal is not considered as garden. The plant is still our grandmothers. It blooms beautifully yellow when the planting is massive, but not for long, less than a week, the rest of the time it’s just green shaggy bushes, which take up a lot of space. Well, of course, the taste and color - there are no comrades ...Margarita//honeygarden.ru/viewtopic.php?t=616
In our area, golden currant grows and bears fruit beautifully. It blooms profusely, the berries are medium, black.aset0584, Urus-Martan//www.forumhouse.ru/threads/336384/
In the fall of 2008, he specially went to the Kushnarenkovsky nursery and, among other things, bought 6 seedlings of golden currant: 2 each of Venus, Lyaysyan and Shafaka. The plants bloomed in the spring of 2009 and 2010, but failed to try a single berry, the fruits did not start. One mother’s bush of Venus has been growing for many years in the mother-in-law in the region — the crop is about one bucket. Other crops - two to three year old honeysuckle, blackcurrant - if you have flowers, you can definitely try at least a few berries. And here is a complete zero. The plants themselves grow normally.bulat, Ufa//forum.prihoz.ru/viewtopic.php?t=2587&start=75
In the garden, 2 varieties, Venus and Shafak, took in our nursery, because they were bred there. The culture tolerates frosts worse during flowering and after, when compared with black. It is better to plant in a sunny area, but where there is more protection from the winds, otherwise a lot of ovary is lost. Bushes grow powerfully, elegant flowering and aroma in the spring, yellow garlands. He tolerates winter frosts perfectly, the bushes have passed -40-45 and not one winter, freezing can be on the tops, but not particularly noticeable. Culture loves the sun. If it rains during the ripening of the berries, there will sometimes be cracks and more acid. In hot and dry summers, the taste is very good. They made jam too, berries through a meat grinder, interesting and the color is bright. Well, in assorted compotes. In dry summers and wasps attack.Elwir, Staroturaevo//www.forumhouse.ru/threads/336384/
I have been growing golden currants for several years. Resistant to frost, drought and disease. The wife really like the wife to taste, and therefore planted. The bush is a little tall and you have to tie it so that the branches do not lean. A prerequisite - you need to plant only golden varietal currants, and not wild - the difference in taste and size of the berries is significant. I do not process it. The main thing is that it is resistant to powdery mildew, which destroys the entire crop on gooseberries and black currants. Every year it blooms beautifully and there are enough fruits.Aktin, Kiev//www.forumhouse.ru/threads/336384/
Golden currants have no such aroma as black, but can boast of other advantages. It is unpretentious, does not require special care, easily survives drought and frost, is well restored after damage. Many varieties can be grown in the suburbs. For fresh consumption, the berries are rude, but you can make wonderful compotes, wines and other culinary delights from them.