Cherry plum is widely distributed in the European part of Russia. Gardeners of different latitudes can please themselves and their family with tasty and juicy fruits of this plant. Choosing a variety of cherry plum for planting on the site, it does not hurt to get acquainted with the Scythian Gold - perhaps this is what you need.
Description of cherry plum varieties Zlato Scythians
The variety was obtained in 1997. It is entered in the State registry in 2005. Zoned in the Central region.
The Scythian Zlato variety is a medium-sized tree with a sprawling rare crown and thick, articulated yellowish shoots. Its winter hardiness is high, the wood withstands frosts down to -30 ° C, but flower buds sometimes freeze when the frost is freezing. Cherry plum is resistant to fungal diseases. The early maturity of Zlata Scythians is lower than that of popular varieties - the gardener will see the first berries only in the fourth year after planting. Productivity is average (up to 30 kg in successful years), irregular.
Early ripening (mid-July), non-simultaneous. Usually harvested in 2-3 receptions with an interval of 5-7 days.
Since the variety is completely self-fertile, it needs pollinators. Chinese plums or cherry plum may act in their quality:
- Gift to St. Petersburg;
- Pavlovskaya yellow.
The berries are round oval, large. The average weight of the fetus is 35 g. The color of the skin and pulp is yellow. The pulp is dense, fibrous, juicy. The taste is very good, sweet, with a pleasant acidity. Tasting score - 5 points. The bone is small, it is difficult to separate. The purpose of the fruit is universal.
Due to the poor transportability, berries are best consumed and processed locally. At + 5 ° C, fruits can be stored for 2-3 weeks.
Cherry plum landing
Planting cherry plum Zlato Scythians is easy even for an inexperienced gardener. They begin, as usual, with the choice of the place where the future tree will grow. It must meet certain criteria related to the characteristics of the variety:
- At the place of landing there should not be a close occurrence of groundwater and stagnation of water.
- Cherry plum is undemanding to the composition of the soil. But the structure is important - it needs loose and well-drained soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
- Cherry plum will bear fruit abundantly only with sufficient sunlight and ventilation, but she does not like drafts.
- Also, the plant is afraid of cold northerly winds.
In connection with these features, it is better to plant the Scythian Gold on small southern or southwestern slopes. Protection from winds is desirable in the form of a building wall, fence or thick trees located north or northeast of the landing site. If this is not possible, it is necessary for the first time to arrange protection from specially knocked down shields painted in white. The rays of the sun reflected from the surface will additionally heat and illuminate the plant. This is especially true for the northern latitudes.
The best time for planting seedlings in the ground is early spring, before the buds swell. If seedlings with a closed root system were selected, then they can be planted at any time from April to October.
Cherry plum landing - step by step instructions
The result will depend on how responsibly the gardener approaches the implementation of the rules and methods of planting:
- Get a seedling. They do this in the fall, during the period of mass digging of seedlings by nurseries for sale. By the way, it will be better to do this in the nursery. On the market, you can get either the wrong variety that is declared by the seller, or even some wild game. One- or two-year-old seedlings take root better, enter fruiting faster - they should be preferred. When buying, they examine the root system - the roots should be healthy, developed, without extraneous cones and growths.
- Wintering a seedling will be buried in the ground. To do this, in the garden dig an oblong hole along the length of the seedling. Its depth should be 30-40 cm. A layer of sand is poured on the bottom. It is advisable to dip the roots into an earthenware mash, let it dry a little and lay the seedling in a hole. They fill it with a layer of sand, moisten it and fill the pit with earth, leaving only the top of the tree on the surface. If possible, you can store the seedling in the basement at an air temperature of 0 to + 5 ° C.
- Then prepare the landing pit. Do this as follows:
- At a chosen place, they dig a hole with a diameter of 70-80 cm and the same depth. In this case, the fertile soil layer is folded separately - it can be used.
- If the earth is heavy, clay, they arrange drainage to drain excess water. To do this, a ten-centimeter layer of rubble, gravel, broken brick, etc., is poured at the bottom of the pit.
- To the top fill the pit with a nutrient mixture - humus, chernozem, peat, sand in equal proportions. Add 2-3 l of wood ash, 300-400 g of superphosphate and mix well with a pitchfork.
- Cover the pit with moisture-proof material (film, roofing material, slate, etc.) to prevent the washing out of nutrients.
- When the time comes for planting, take out a seedling and soak in water for 2-3 hours. You can add Kornevin, Heteroauxin or other root growth stimulants to the water.
- The landing pit is opened and a small mound is formed in it.
- The sapling is placed with the root neck on the top of the knoll, the roots are spread along its slopes.
- They fill the pit with earth. You need to do this in a few tricks, each time compacting the soil.
- Set the root neck of the seedling at the correct height. It is important to ensure that as a result it is at the soil level. To do this, you first need to install the root neck a little higher. Then, after watering, the soil will settle, and it will be at the right height.
- They make a trunk circle by the diameter of the pit.
- Water abundantly - all soil in the planting pit should be moistened. This ensures good contact of the roots with the ground and the removal of air bubbles, which usually form when the pit is filled up.
- After drying the soil, it must be loosened and mulched. To do this, you can use hay, humus, compost, etc.
- Cut the seedling to a height of 60-80 cm. If there are branches on it, they are shortened by 30-40%.
Video: how to plant cherry plum
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
For the cultivation of cherry plum Zlato Scythians, the same methods and methods are used as for other varieties.
Watering and feeding
Cherry plum should be watered several times per season, depending on the amount of precipitation. As a rule, do this about once a month. A young plant with a still underdeveloped root system may need to be watered more often, especially in dry years. When watering, the soil of the trunk circle should be moistened to a depth of 25-30 cm. After drying of the earth and the formation on the surface of the crust, the trunk circles loosen and mulch.
Cherry plum begins to be fed from the third year after planting. Until this time, there are enough fertilizers planted during planting.
An overdose of fertilizer is not less harmful than the scarcity.
Table: types of top dressing cherry plum and timing of application
|Type of fertilizer||Dates and frequency of application||Dosage and dosage methods|
|Compost, peat or humus||In autumn or spring every 2-3 years||Sprinkle evenly over the area of the trunk circle and dig. Application rate - 5 kg / m2|
|Liquid||After the beginning of fruiting, annually. The first time - in the second half of May, then another 2 times every 2 weeks||In 10 l of water insist 2 kg of mullein (you can replace 1 kg of bird droppings or 5 kg of fresh grass) for a week. Then diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 and watered from the calculation of one bucket per 1 m2|
|Urea, ammonium nitrate||In the spring, annually||Sprinkle evenly over the area of the trunk circle and dig. Application rate - 20-30 g / m2|
|Potassium Monophosphate, Potassium Sulfate||In late spring, annually||Dissolved in water and watered at the rate of 10-20 g / m2|
|Superphosphate||Autumn, annually||Sprinkle evenly over the area of the trunk circle and dig. Application rate - 20-30 g / m2|
|Complex fertilizers||According to the attached instructions|
An important stage in plum agricultural technology, which should not be neglected.
Table: types of cuts, terms and methods of implementation
|Cropping Type||Dates||Ways of doing|
|Formative||In the early spring for 4-5 years from planting||Form a crown in the form of an improved "bowl"|
|Regulatory||Annually in early spring||Thinning the crown by removing the “tops” and shoots growing inside the crown. It is carried out only if necessary, when thickening the crown|
|Supporting||Annually in early summer||The so-called chasing of young shoots is carried out by shortening by 10-12 cm. This provokes their branching and the laying of additional flower buds for the next year's harvest|
|Sanitary||Annually, in late autumn and / or early spring||Dry, damaged and diseased shoots are cut|
|Anti-aging||If necessary, in early spring||It is carried out by way of exposing skeletal branches in order to induce the growth of new young shoots|
Diseases and Pests
Cherry plums and plums have common diseases and pests, as well as ways to combat them and prevent them.
The most important stage, the implementation of which qualitatively and on time will allow to avoid infection by diseases and attack of pests.
Table: calendar of preventive and sanitary measures
|The timing||activity||Scope of work|
|October||Collection and destruction of fallen leaves||Leaves and branches burn. Ash is used as fertilizer|
|November, March||Sanitary pruning|
|November||Whitewashing trees||A solution of slaked lime is prepared, 1% copper sulfate is added, the trunks and thick branches are whitened. Special garden paints can be used.|
|November||Digging soil||Digging trunk trunks as deep as possible with the turning layers of the earth. It is advisable to do this just before the frost, so that wintering pests raised to the surface die|
|November, March||Spraying soil and crown with copper sulfate||Apply a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid|
|March||Installation of hunting belts||Around the trunks at a height of 0.5 m, belts of roofing material, film, etc. are installed.|
|Early March||Strong Pesticide Spraying||Apply DNOC once every 3 years and Nitrafen once a year|
|Mid-May (after flowering), then every 2-3 weeks||Systemic fungicide spraying||Apply drugs such as:|
You should use one drug no more than 3 times per season, as they are addictive and lose effectiveness
Probable diseases and their symptoms
If prevention did not help or was neglected, you should know the signs of the main probable diseases.
The most dangerous fungal disease. The fungus spreads inside the branches, affecting the wood. It clogs blood vessels, causing the wood to darken and die. Outwardly, this cannot be seen, but the plant gives a signal - the leaves begin to lighten, its color becomes silver. Seeing this phenomenon, you should cut the branch and make sure that the wood has darkened. If so, the branch is cut "into a ring." If the whole tree is affected, it remains only to uproot it. All affected branches are burned.
If the cut wood is healthy and bright, the gardener is lucky. It is also a sign of a fungal disease called false milky shine. It affects only the leaves. In this case, the tree is treated with fungicides.
The second name is red leaf spot. It begins with the appearance of red spots on the leaves. After a while, the leaves turn yellow and fall, and the berries become tasteless. The reason most often is the neglect of preventive spraying with fungicides. But it’s not too late to start this when identifying signs of the disease.
In the spring, during flowering, bees enter the spores of the pathogen. The fungus infects flowers, leaves and young shoots. Parts of the plant wither and wilt, then blacken. Outwardly, it looks like a burn, which is why the disease has a second name - a monilial burn. In summer, the fungus infects the fruit with gray rot. Prevention and regular use of fungicides will help to cope with the problem.
Probable pests and signs of damage
Cherry plum fruits like various pests. For example, a plum sawfly, plum moth, moths. The first two are butterflies, the third is a bug. What unites them is that they all lay their eggs in the flowers of cherry plum, and their larvae feed on the fruits and kernels of the bones. Therefore, when larvae are found in berries, it is too late to fight.
Butterflies and beetles should be destroyed before and after flowering, using insecticides (first Decis, then Fufanon, Spark Bio, etc.). During flowering, this should not be done, as bees will suffer. The centipede can be collected manually, as well as using traps with pheromones.
Photo gallery: cherry plum pests
- Butterfly plum moth lays its eggs in the cherry plum flower
- The plum moth caterpillar eats juicy berries
- Female plum sawfly lays eggs on cherry plum flowers
- The plum sawfly larva eats cherry plum berries from the inside
- The centipedes can be collected manually, as well as the use of pheromone traps
- Larva larvae eats kernel kernels
Reviews about the grade of Gold Scythians
I have Zlato (a young seedling, 3 years old to him) froze this winter. The upper branches had to be cut - 30 centimeters. The rest is alive. Winter hardiness, indeed, leaves much to be desired ...
If you plant Gold ... at the height of the abdomen / chest for the Gift SP / Pchelnikovskaya (or their seedlings), then significantly increase the winter hardiness of the variety. There is time until the next harsh winter, master vaccinations ... I have been living with Scythians since 2000 and bear fruit since 2004. Bred at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Winter hardiness is low, only 3.5 points according to Susov. If purchased, it is better if the vaccination for winter-hardy stock is made at a height of 1.0-1.5 m. Very tasty.
Gold of the Scythians - Pts tree. comfortable: self-fertile, with a maximum height of 2.5, harvesting is a pleasure, we remove from 20 to 30 kg from one tree, but ... the wingspan is 2 m on each side, that is, you need room. Until 7 years, one tree grew and bore fruit well. Last year, another 8 trees were planted, and five plum varieties were transferred, leaving only two + cherry plum. July rose (a worthy variety). We have all the plum root-owning, begins to bear fruit in the 4th year. For my own reasons, I plant only root for cherry plum.
Cherry plum Gold of the Scythians has many shortcomings. Among them - self-fertility, low winter hardiness of flower buds, irregular fruiting, poor transportability of fruits. But under favorable conditions for growth, these shortcomings will pay off with the excellent taste of berries and unpretentiousness in care.