Apricot grown from seed is more resistant to weather conditions, as well as to diseases and pests. This is one of the reasons encouraging amateur gardeners to engage in such work. But sometimes an important factor is the desire to experiment. After all, it is impossible to predict in advance exactly what fruits the apricot obtained in this way will bear.
Features of growing apricot from the stone
The most difficult step in growing a fruit tree from an apricot kernel is to obtain and preserve the first small sprout. But first, you need to properly select and prepare planting material.
Based on my own experience, I can say that apricot can be grown from seed. Such a tree will begin to bear fruit in the 4th year. But in most cases, grown apricot does not preserve the properties of the mother tree. I have grown three trees in the garden, they are all different, the fruits differ in size and taste.
Selection of planting material
For planting, the seeds of the first crop of zoned trees are best suited. If you do not have the opportunity to purchase local fruits, you can buy apricots in the market.
Large fruits more often correspond to southern varieties, and their seedlings may not survive in a cold climate.
For planting take the seeds of overripe fruits. Then they are washed, disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried in a shaded place.
Step-by-step instructions for sowing bone
Bones are planted in mid-autumn (before the first frost) or in April. An earlier fall planting is not recommended, as sweet fruit seeds are attractive to many insects that can damage the kernels.
Algorithm of actions:
- The soil must be prepared in advance, the best option is the preliminary landing of green manure. After cleaning and digging, the soil will be ready.
- Before planting, the dried apricot kernels are soaked for a day in water, the floated ones are rejected.
- A trench is dug with a depth of 10-15 cm.
- Around the drupes it is necessary to create a breathable layer of soil, so a mixture of humus, earth and straw (or grass) is laid at the bottom of the trench. For heavy soils, sand can be added.
- The bones should be at a depth of 5 cm, the distance between them is usually 10 cm.
- The trench is filled with the same mixture.
- From above, the ground is mulched with grass or pine branches to prevent freezing.
Autumn planting has an advantage: stratification of seeds takes place in vivo, at the same time weak sprouts are rejected. But for regions with a cold climate and an unstable level of snow cover, this method is not suitable.
Video: how to plant apricot kernels
If the sowing of seeds is delayed in the spring, they must undergo stratification (cold treatment) before planting. Before that, drupes are stored in a cool, dry place in a paper bag. Stratification can be done in different ways:
- 100 days before planting, the drupe is placed in a container of wet sand and placed in the refrigerator or in the basement, the temperature should be 2-5aboutC. Sand must be washed, without organic matter. Periodically, the seeds must be checked so that the sand does not dry out and does not rot. At the end of stratification, sprouts begin to hatch at the bones. If this happened too early, it is necessary to reduce their growth rate, for this it is necessary to provide a lower ambient temperature (but not negative).
- You can stratify in an accelerated way: in 30 days. The bones are soaked in clean water for 3 days. To prevent the fermentation process, water is changed every 24 hours. Floated bones are discarded. Prepared drupes are mixed with sand and refrigerated. After several days in the refrigerator, the bones with the filler are placed in a freezer with a temperature of -6aboutC for 1.5 hours, then moistened with hot water (40-45aboutC), after which the container with stones is returned to the refrigerator. The bone should crack, if this did not happen, the procedure with the freezer is repeated.
Video: Bone Stratification
Sowing seeds in a pot
You can plant an apricot kernel in the fall, not in open ground, but in a pot. By spring there will be a small seedling.
But many gardeners do not welcome this method, since a plant grown in greenhouse conditions is less resistant to weather conditions.
- Before planting in the pot, the bones must also be stratified. If they are of this year, then preliminary soaking is necessary only for rejection.
- For planting, you can use any fertile soil, but be sure to provide good drainage, since apricot does not tolerate waterlogging.
- When the embryo hatch, the bone is placed in moist earth at a shallow depth and covered with earth.
- To accelerate germination, the pot is placed in a warm place and covered with plastic wrap.
- As soon as the green sprout appears, the film is removed.
Apricot should be placed on the sunny side. The seedling, which has reached a height of 30-40 cm, can be replanted in open ground.
Video: apricot and peach seedlings
Growing apricots according to the method of Zhelezov
Famous Siberian amateur gardener V.K. Zhelezov developed a method for growing fruit trees in Siberia. He paid a lot of attention to working with apricots. In his practice, Zhelezov adheres to certain rules:
- the best seedlings are obtained from local varieties, for the conditions of Siberia, he prefers apricot Manchurian;
- seedlings obtained in a natural way (the seeds lie on the ground without any cover and so leave for the winter) give a small percentage of germination (not more than 10%), but as a result of natural selection have greater resistance to environmental conditions;
- for a more economical use of planting material, it is better to carry out artificial stratification, but it is advisable to plant seeds directly in a permanent place;
- when planting, the seeds are closed by soil no more than 1 cm, this prevents decay of the root neck of the seedling.
Transplanting an Apricot Seedling
For planting a seedling, a place is selected and prepared in advance so that subsequently the seedling does not need to be replanted, as this will increase the waiting time for fruiting. Apricot is best placed on a south, closed from the north wind and drafts place, preferably on a small hill and in no case in a lowland. The distance to other fruit-bearing trees is 3-4 m.
The close arrangement of berry bushes is not welcome.
The pit is prepared a few days before planting, its dimensions are 70 × 70 × 70 cm. A drainage pillow is made below using crushed stone or small brick. Next, pour the prepared mixture, you can use the composition:
- top layer of the earth - 1.5 parts;
- leaf humus - 5 parts;
- Mullein - 1 part;
- wood ash - 60 g;
- superphosphate - 50 g.
Garden soil is poured from above. The seedling is planted so as to close the root neck. A young seedling is watered infrequently with cold water. To protect it from rodents, it is better to cover the first months with a plastic bottle.
You should pay attention to the appearance of a young seedling: if its leaf blade is narrow, slightly rough, has small nicks, then the future tree is a wild bird with small fruits and it is better to use such a seedling as a stock of cultivated varieties; if the leaves are wide glossy, then there is the likelihood of a good sweet variety.
Features of growing apricot from seeds in different regions
You can get apricot from seed in almost all regions of the country. But if in areas with a relatively warm climate, as, for example, in Belarus, picking planting material is not difficult, then for the northern regions you need to use fruits of special varieties:
- Siberian Baikalov;
- East Siberian;
- Northern Lights;
- Mountain Abakan;
There are also some features of agricultural technology:
- planting a seedling in the ground, make a small mound for it - so the earth around the roots will warm up faster in the spring;
- so that pollination is faster, the crown of trees is sprayed with sweet water, attracting bees;
- in preparation for winter, an earthen mound is made around the apricot, mulched with needles and wrapped the trunk with dense material.
Video: how to grow apricot in Siberia
Using the same agricultural technology in less severe areas (in the middle lane, Moscow region) will help protect apricot trees from weather surprises. But in these regions, spring comes quickly, you need to remove the covering material from the stem in time, and trample the snow around the trunk to prevent the root neck from warping. For the same purpose, in the fall, the lower part of the trunk is bleached.
Apricot fruits attract with its taste and rich composition of vitamins and minerals. They are great for homework. If before apricot grew only in the southern regions, now it can be found in the gardens of many regions of Russia. Of course, to get a fruiting tree in a temperate climate, you need to make a lot of effort, but the result is worth it.