Primula (Primula) refers to herbaceous plants of the family primrose. Its name in Latin means "first", and the people called it lamb, a talisman of happiness, keys. In ancient times, the flower was endowed with magical power and included in the composition of various potions. Planting primrose perennial and caring for it has some features, and if you give the plant proper attention, it will bloom with the same spectacular buds as in the photo.
Features of growing perennial primrose as a garden culture
In the wild, primrose can be found in any humid region with fertile soil. It is characterized by a huge variety of species, some of which are listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. Due to the beautiful flowering and unpretentiousness in the care, the plant has found wide distribution in gardening.
Perennial primrose is a low rhizome plant with a beautiful, slightly wrinkled, glossy or pubescent foliage of round, oval or lanceolate shape. Its color, depending on the species, ranges from bright green to bronze. The edges can be either smooth or jagged. The leaves are collected in a neat compact outlet, from the center of which powerful peduncles come out. Umbrella or spherical spectacular inflorescences of various colors are located on their top. In some species, small flowers may be solitary. The plant has a pronounced pleasant odor. It is due to the presence of a large number of essential oils in its foliage and flowers. At the end of flowering, box fruits with small seeds of a dark brown color are formed on the bushes.
Primrose refers to frost-resistant plants. If it is planted in open ground, then with proper preparation for wintering, it tolerates frosts well up to 30 ° C. In the summer, these flowers will have a comfortable temperature from 18 to 25 ° C, while you need to provide them with high humidity and easy shading. Thanks to these characteristics, it can be grown on almost the entire territory of our country. But most suitable for breeding are regions in which a humid and cool climate prevails.
Also, these plants can be grown at home, planting them in small flowerpots or tubs on the balcony from the east or west side. With the onset of the autumn period, containers should be brought into the apartment and caring for the primrose as a houseplant, providing it with a rest period in the winter months.
It is advisable to place the flowers in a darkened room with an air temperature of 12 to 16 ° C and water no more than twice a month. In the spring, flowerpots need to be moved to a well-lit, warm place, resume regular watering and fertilize. With the onset of comfortable air temperature, they can again be taken out to the balcony.
The plant makes high demands on the composition of the soil. It will develop well and bloom profusely only on loose, moisture- and breathable, nutritious and well-drained soil. When preparing the site for planting, it is recommended to apply for each square meter of substrate:
- humus - 3 kg;
- coarse sand - 10 kg;
- vermiculite - 2 kg;
- moss sphagnum - 2 kg.
Dig the soil to a depth of about 50 cm and level it well. Primrose has a rather weak superficial root system. Therefore, in the process of growing it is necessary to regularly remove weeds that take moisture and nutrients from the soil around the plants, and mulch the soil.
Role in Landscaping
The ease of breeding, beautiful flowers, the simplicity of planting and care have made the garden perennial primrose one of the most popular stunted plants in landscape design.
With the right varietal varieties of plants in the garden, you can create areas that continuously bloom from mid-spring to late summer. These flowers are recommended to be placed on flower beds, lawns, decorate rock gardens or rockeries with them. A plant of several bright shades, planted in curtains or rabatka, looks good.
Flowerpots with these flowers will effectively decorate the entrance to the house or gazebo.
Since primrose refers to hygrophilous plants, it feels great near water bodies and can become a worthy decoration, for example, in the coastal zone of a pond.
Primrose may be an element of a flower arrangement. It should be borne in mind that she gets along well with hosta, astilbe, fern, geyhera, kaluga, irises, saponaria, goryanka, hellebore, hyacinths, decorative cereals. Beautiful neighbors for this plant are daffodils, tulips, peonies, phlox and roses. It looks good in combination with low deciduous and coniferous shrubs.
The most common species and their photos
To date, about 500 natural species of primrose are known for many years, apart from varietal hybrids bred by breeders. The most common species are actively used in gardening.
Common (Primula veris)
The plant reaches a height of 10 to 25 cm. It is characterized by an elongated oval foliage of light green color. Yellow flowers with a core of a darker color are collected in drooping umbrella inflorescences. Flowering begins in mid-April.
This species has not only decorative, but also useful properties. Its young leaves can be added to salads and formulated from them for the treatment of various diseases. No less valuable are the roots and flowers of the plant.
Auricular or Ear (Primula auricula)
The height of this species ranges from 15 to 45 cm. The thick pubescent foliage has a bright green color, the inflorescences-umbrellas consist of several small flowers with five petals. Their color can be white, cream, bright yellow, purple or burgundy. Hybrid varieties can combine several shades. Flowering continues from early May to late June.
Feathered (Primula pubesce)
The plant is a hybrid, has small rounded glossy green leaves, the height of the rosette can be from 10 to 30 cm. Umbrella inflorescences consist of large velvety flowers, which, depending on the variety, can have a very different color of the petals and the core. Flowering begins in late April and lasts about a month.
Fine Toothed (Primula denticulata)
A characteristic feature of this species are numerous elongated, serrated and pubescent leaves, forming an even and dense rosette up to 30 cm high. Large spherical inflorescences of white, lilac, pink, purple or burgundy are located on high peduncles (up to 70 cm). Varieties of this species bloom immediately after the snow melts, buds continue to form for a month and a half.
High (Primula elatior)
The plant can reach 30 cm in height. The wrinkled foliage has an oval shape and bright green color; on the thick peduncles there are umbrella inflorescences from small bells. Their petals and core have a different color, which, depending on the variety, can have a wide variety of shades. This species is characterized by long flowering, which lasts from mid-April to mid-June.
Cortus (Primula cortusoides)
Thanks to its elegant corrugated foliage with large teeth of bright green color, varietal hybrids of this species are highly decorative. The height of plants reaches 20 cm, inflorescences-umbrellas are formed by small flowers of pink or purple color. Flowering begins in May.
Julia (Primula juliae)
The plant is small and compact, its height does not exceed 10 cm. Rounded jagged foliage has a light green color. Small single flowers have pink, purple or raspberry petals and a yellow middle. Primrose Julia forms buds from late April to mid-May.
Orchidaceae (Primula vialii)
This species is extravagant in the shape and color of inflorescences. They look like pyramids formed by bright red buds, which, when opened, turn into small lilac bells. Light green slightly jagged lanceolate leaves form a rosette up to 30 cm high. Flowering occurs in June and lasts until the end of July.
Mealy (Primula farinosa)
The plant reaches a height of 10 to 30 cm. Lanceolate, fine-toothed green foliage is covered with a white coating. The flowers of white, lilac or violet color have a yellow core and gather in umbrella inflorescences. Powdery primrose blooms throughout May.
To plant primrose, you need to choose shaded areas of the garden. Direct rays adversely affect plants, they quickly fade, begin to dry out and may die completely by the beginning of autumn. If the garden is too sunny, you can place these flowers near the house, the fence or under low bushes and trees. The landing site should be well ventilated. Long-term primrose breeding in the garden plot is carried out using seedlings, cuttings or dividing large adult bushes.
Growing seedlings from seeds
Seeds of their own collection can only be used to obtain seedlings of natural plant species. The seed material of varietal hybrids does not retain its maternal traits, so it must be purchased in specialized stores.
Seeding is recommended in early spring in accordance with the following recommendations:
- Fill the seedling boxes with a drainage layer. Add nutrient soil, which includes 4 parts of leaf soil, 2 parts of turf land, 1 part of coarse sand.
- Distribute the planting material evenly over the surface of the soil, slightly press and moisten.
- Tighten containers with polyethylene film and transfer to a well-lit room with an air temperature of about 20 ° C.
- Shelter must be removed daily to ventilate and moisten the plantings.
- After the shoots appear, the film must be removed.
- When three full-fledged sheets appear, they should pick the seedlings into separate small pots.
- After the threat of spring frost passes and the soil warms up to 10 ° C, seedlings can be planted in open ground. Depending on the region, in 2018 young primroses should be planted from mid-April to the end of May. If the night temperature after planting is less than + 5 ° C, young plants need to be covered with material.
- Seedlings of small species are placed at a distance of 15 cm from each other, medium - 30 cm and large - 50 cm.
Video: planting primrose grown from seeds in open ground
Propagation by cuttings
If it is possible to purchase several sheets of a favorite variety of primrose, then you can grow seedlings by cuttings. To do this, you need:
- In early spring, select healthy and well-developed leaves on an adult plant and cut them obliquely.
- Place the planting material in containers with a good drainage layer and peat-sand mixture.
- Pour the plantings, cover with glass jars and place in a darkened warm place.
- After several young leaves appear at the base of the petioles, you need to plant the seedlings in individual containers and transfer to a lighter room.
- With the advent of suitable temperature conditions, young plants need to be planted on a prepared plot in the garden.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
With proper care, the primrose perennial in the garden plot grows rapidly, while its foliage and inflorescences are smaller.
To preserve the decorative properties of plants, it is recommended to transplant them every 3-4 years, dividing into several parts. The division is carried out in the spring, using the following method:
- The bush selected for propagation must be carefully dug up and its root system cleaned of soil.
- Using a sharp knife, divide the rhizome into several parts. Each of them should have a growth point.
- Slices should be treated with crushed activated carbon.
- Plant each dividend in a separate hole, moisten and mulch with sawdust or peat.
Video: how to share primrose in autumn
Care in the garden from the moment of planting in the open ground
The content of primrose in the garden is not difficult. She needs regular watering, top dressing, weeding and loosening. If these procedures are carried out in a timely manner, the plant will respond with bright and long flowering.
Watering and feeding
Watering is a very important point in care. In the spring and summer, they can be plentiful, but without stagnation of water. The soil around the bushes should always be slightly moist. Water needs to be poured directly under the root, it must not be allowed to get on the foliage and buds. This can cause the plant to get sunburn. And if the middle of the outlet is flooded, then its decay may begin. After flowering, the frequency of watering should be slightly reduced. In early August, they need to be increased again to stimulate the laying of new leaves and flower buds of the next season. Water the primrose should be warm and soft water.
During the entire growing season, the plant is fed every two weeks. Before the bud formation begins, nitrogen fertilizers can be used, as well as manure infusion (1 kg per 10 liters of water) or bird droppings (100 g per 10 liters of water). Such top dressing will contribute to the rapid build-up of decorative mass. After that, it is recommended to replace them with compositions with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. These elements will provide bright and abundant flowering.
Prune foliage pruning is recommended in early spring, after the snow melts. Doing this in the fall is not worth it, foliage is a source of nutrition for a weak root system to the very frosts. And dried leaves will be an additional protection of the plant from frost. During flowering, it is recommended to cut off faded buds in a timely manner so that they do not take away the strength of the plant.
Problems encountered by gardeners when growing primrose
Of the most common problems when growing primrose can be noted:
- Withering and drying of leaves. This can occur due to insufficient watering or large amounts of sunlight on the leaves. In this case, you need to adjust the watering mode or create additional shading in too hot time of the day.
- Decay of the root system. The process can be triggered by overflow or irrigation with cold water.
- Weak flowering. The formation of a small number of buds with small flowers can be associated with malnutrition.In this situation, you should pay attention to the correctness of the feeding. If the plant is adult and large, then perhaps he needs a transplant with dividing the bush into several parts.
Perennial primrose is a rather delicate plant that needs to be provided with proper care, and properly planted plants will ensure healthy growth.
Diseases and pests
Like any garden or home flower, it is exposed to various fungal and infectious diseases.
The most common of them include:
- Powdery mildew, which manifests itself in the formation of brown spots with white coating on the foliage.
- Gray rot, in which the leaves and shoots of the plant are covered with yellowish spots with a brown border.
- Rust, upon infection of which the outer surface of the foliage becomes covered with reddish-brown spots. On the lower part, tubercles form in which rusty fungus spores accumulate.
- Anthracnose, in which the leaves are covered with a dark coating and small brown spots with a purple or yellow border.
- Peronosporosis, manifested in the formation of transparent spots on the outer surface of the foliage. On the inside, the leaves are overgrown with white mold.
- Chlorosis, in which the foliage of the plant is discolored, the buds are deformed and the growth of the flower as a whole is inhibited.
When primrose is infected with these diseases, all affected parts of the plant should be eliminated. After this, it is necessary to treat the places of the cuts with crushed activated carbon and spray the plants with a fungicide solution. You also need to spill them with soil.
Of the pests that affect the plant, aphids, spider mites, thrips, slugs should be noted. All of them suck juice from the plant, which can lead to its death. If insects or traces of their vital activity are found on the bushes, immediately wash them with soapy water and spray them with an insecticide solution. If slugs have appeared on the plant, then they will have to be collected manually. This will help preserve the flower.
How to prepare a plant for winter
At the end of autumn, you need to add nutrient soil under the bushes. This is required to shelter exposed roots. Then you should mulch the area with sawdust or peat. During prolonged fall with high temperatures, some types of primrose can bloom repeatedly. Do not allow this, since the plant will expend a lot of energy for the formation of inflorescences and will not tolerate wintering well. The resulting buds must be removed immediately.
In the southern regions, primrose hibernates well without additional shelter. In areas with severe frosts, at the end of autumn, plant bushes should be covered with dry foliage and covered with spruce branches. After enough snow falls, you can build additional shelter from it. Varietal hybrids are recommended to be dug up, transplanted into flowerpots and grown indoors at room temperature until the next season.
Useful reviews of gardeners
Well, the snow has fallen, I covered the primrose with the ultrasound in two layers and the snow. Wintered perfectly, the leaves are green, beautiful !!!!!!olga
We have primroses blooming for a year now. The most tenacious was primrose with small yellow flowers. She survived the coldest winters, now blooms amazingly.Londa
They planted primrose seeds, three varieties. It has risen well, has grown decently before the fall. For the winter it was well covered with foliage, then on top with material, but only two bushes survived. They didn’t take risks anymore, now they hibernated in the dugout. They missed the deadline a little to divide, she already began to throw out the color there, and she had to urgently plant it.klim
The primrose is frost-resistant, shade-tolerant and unpretentious. With proper care, it will not only decorate the garden with its bright flowering, but also enrich the air with a rich and quite pleasant aroma. Large-flowered perennial primrose is successfully grown as a houseplant.